Skip to main content

Full text of "Works of the Camden Society"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 


.No. cFj!e^fy 





zed by 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 













Digitized by 


[no. Liy.] 

Digitized by 






JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. Treas. S.A. Director. 

WILLIAM J. THOMS, ESQ. F.S.A. Secretary, 

Digitized by 


The CouNcii* of the Cabiden Societt desire it to be under- 
stood that thej are not answerable for any opinions or obserya- 
tions that may appear in the Society's publications ; the Editors of 
the several works being alone responsible for the same. 

Digitized by 




Mac A RE. Pactovy plasmator, 
Mac A RE of noghte, as God only. 

Mace of a seriawnt. S(c)eptrumy 

Macer, or he |)at berythe mace. 

Macys, spyce. Made, in plur. 

c. F. 
Madde, or wood. Amensydemens, 

(Ma DDE, or wroth be crafte or 

cunnyng, s. Factus,) 
Madyr, herbe. Sandix, Dice. 

rubia major, et minor dicitur 


Maddyn, or dotyn. Desipio. 
Maddyn, or waxyn woode. In- 

saniofjurio, cath. 
MADD£NESSE.24m^ncia, demencia, 
Mafey, othe (maffeyth, s.) 3fe- 

Mageram,^ herbe. Majorona. 
Mageste. Magestas. 
Magry, vn-thanke.2 Vituperium, 

reprohacio (malas grates, K. 

demeritum, p.) 
Max, monethe. Mains. 
Maydekyn', or lytylle mayde 

(maydyn kyn, h. p.) Puella, 

puerula, juvencula. 
Mayde wede, herbe, or maythys 

> This word should possibly be read maobran, as the power of the contractioii 
placed over the penultimate letter in the MS. is uncertain. The other readings are 
maioru, k. mageron, s. magerym, p. w. margeryn, j. 

3 This word is used both as a substantivei from the French **nuUgri; bldme, re- 
proche, mawsais gri t maUu grates ;^* rouubf. and as an adverb, maugrif in spite of 

** Ma manasinges jit have thai maked, 

Mawgre mot thai have to mede 1" Minot, p. 3. 
Chancer uses the word '< mangre " in the same manner, Rom. of R. 4399. Compare 
Vision of P. P. 4280. See also the Prologue to Book ii. of the version of Vegecius, 
attributed to Trevisa. '* Had ye, Sir Emperour, commaundede me to haue written 
your soueraigne dedes of armes — then had I been siker to haue deseruede thanke, there 
now I drede me to deserue magre." rot. ms. 18 A. XII. Herman says, " I am not 
able to here thy maugrefe, impar invidia tuiBi" and Palsgrave gives, as a substantive, 
** Maugry, nuigrd, maitalent,** See Jamieson, v, Mawgr^. For instances of the use 
of the word adverbially see Sir F. Madden's Glossary to Gawayn ; R. Glouc. p. 94; 
R. Brunne, p. 58 ; and Chaucer. ** Maulgre my heed. Maulgre fortune. Mau]gre 
his tethe, maulgri ses dens,^^ &c. palsg. ** Maulgri etue, mauger their teeth, in spight 
of their hearts,** &c. coto. 

camd. SOC. 2 T 

Digitized by 




(maydewode, s.maydenwede, p.) ' 

Melissa, amarusca, 
Maydyn (or maydon, s,) yn 

clennesse of lyyf.^ Virgo, 
Mayden (or maydon, s.) ser- 

uaunt. Ancilla. 
Maydyn, or seruaiint folowynge 

a woman of worschyppe. Pe* 

dissequa, cufsecla, cath. 
Maydynhood, Virginitas. 
(Mayfay, supra in mafay, s.) 
Mayle of a haburione. Squama, 

c. F. hamusy cath. macula, 

c, F. CATH. et UG. in macero. 
Mayne, or hurte (mayme, h. p.) 

Maynyd (or mankyd, infra, 

maymyd, h. p.) Mutilatus, 
Maynyn (or mankkyn, infra^ 

maymyn, k.)^ Mutilo, 
Maynprysyd, or menprisyd 

(maynsprisid, k. maymprysyd, or 

memprisyd, s.)'* Manucaptus, 

Jidejussus, c. f. (mancipatus, p.) 

^1J(Y)NPRISYN' (maynpresonte, 

s.) Manucapioi cath. man- 

cipo, CATH, Jldejubetf, cath. 

Maynprisynge. Manucap(j)io, 

manumissio, c. f. 
Maynprisowre. Mancipator, 

fidejussor^ c. f. (manucaptor^ p.) 
Mayne, or strengthe. Vi^or, robur, 
Mayntenaunce. Manutencioy 

supportacioy defencio. 
Mayntenyd. Manutentusy sup- 

portatus, defensus* 
Mayntenowre. Manutentor, 

defensor, supportator,fautor. 
Mayntyn (sic, s. maynteyne, 

K. p.) manuteneo, suppm^to. 

(defendo, protego, p.) 
Maystyr. Magister, didascoliis, 

petagogus (monitor, auctor, 

preceptor, p.) 
Maysterly. Magistraliter, 
Maystresse. Magistra. 
Maystrye, or souerente, and 

heyare honde y(n) strjrfe or 

werre (maistri, or worchip, or 

the heyer bond, k. maystrys, s.) 

Dextre,pL victoria, triumphus. 
^Maistri, k. Magisterium.) 
(Maythys, supra in mayde 


> See MAYTHTS. Anthemis cotultif Linn. Ang.-Sax. ma^e'Se, chamamelum, 
' The old writers occasionally use the term maiden in reference to either sex. In 
the Vision of P. P. 5535, Wit, disconrsing of ill-assorted matrimony, commends al- 
liances between '* maidenes and maydenes." In the Liber Festivalis it is said that St. 
Luke '* went to our Lady, and she taught him the gospell that he wrothe, and for he 
was a clene mayden, oar Ladi cherished him the more.** Ed. Rouen, 1491, f. cliij. 
'* Mayde of the mankind, puceau. Maide of the woman kynde, pucelle." palso. 

* <* To mayne, mutulare. Maynde, mutulatus, A maynynge, mutulacio,** cath. 
ANG. " I mayne, or I mayne one, I take the vse of one of his lymmes from hym, 
rqfolle, and le mehaigne, but mehaigner is Normante. '* palsg. The participle 
" mayned *' occurs in the Golden Legend, f. 121, b. Compare mahennare, mahemiare, 
Duc. ; and the old French mehenier, mehaingner. 

* The second word is here contracted in the MS. and should possibly be read mem- 
prisyd. By a writ of main-prize the sheriff is commanded to take sureties for the appear- 
ance of a prisoner, called mainpemers, or mainprisours, and to set him at large. This is 
done either when bail has been refused, or when the cause of commitment is not properly 
bailable. Of the distinction between manucapere and balliare, see further in Spelman. 

* This plant is thus mentioned by G. de Bibelesworth ; Arund. MS. 220, f. 301. 

Digitized by 




(Marare, supra in macare, s.) 
Make, or fyt, and mete (mak, fy^ 
or esy, k.) Aptus, conveniens. 
Make, mathe, wyrm yn ))e fleshe 
(or maye, infra, make, or magot, 
H. p. magat, may, or math, s.)^ 
Tarmusy cath, cimexy c, f. 


Make, or metche.^ Compar. 
Marerel, fysche. Megatons, 
Mak YN, or make, JFacioy plasmo, 

Make able. Hahilito, 
Make a-ceethe (makyn sethe, 

k. a sythe, p.)^ Satisfctcio. 

Make bettyr. Melioro. 
Make byttyr. Exacerhoy ama- 

Make blak. Denigro, 
Make bldnte. Ohtundo, cath. 
Make clene. Mundoy pur go y 

Make comuenaunt, or com- 

naunt (comavnt, k. cumnawnte, 

s. couenamit, p.)* Pango. 
Make deep. Surdo, cath. 
Make drunk yn. Inehrio. 
Make dul. HehetOy obtundo, 

etc. ut supra. 
Mare evyn. Equo. 

** Si V0U8 irouet en toun verger 

Afiierokes (ma)^n) e gletoner (and cloten,) 

Le8 aracez de vn be$agu (twybel.)'* 
In the Vooabulary of names of plants, Sloane MS. 5, is given '^ Amarusea caltday 
Gall, amerochey Ang, maithe ;*' in another list, Sloane MS. 56, ** cheleye^ i, mathe.** 
The camomile is still known by the appellation Mayweed ; Anthemis cotula, Linn. 
Gerarde describes the " May weed, wild cammomill, stinking mathes, or mauthen," 
Coiula/tBtidat and observes that the red kind grows in the west parts of England 
amongst the corn, as Mayweed does elsewhere, and is called " red maythes, our London 
women do call it Rose-a-rnbie.** Ang.-Sax. masetSe, maj^a, cham<gmelum. 

1 Maak in the Craven Dialect still means a maggot. Dan. mak, madike, vermU, 

2 *< Collega, a make, or a yomanne.'* med. In the edition of the Ortns in Mr. 
Wilbraham's library collega is rendered " a make, or a felowe.'* This term, as used 
by Chaucer and other writers, has the signification of a mate, or fellow, a spouse, either 
husband or wife. It is said of the turtle dove in the Golden Legend, ** When she hath 
lost her make, she wyll neuer haue other make.*' See Jamieson. A.-S. maca, coruors. 

' The substantive a-cethe has occurred previously, p. 5, where the word has been 
printed a-cethbn, a contraction appearing in the Harl. MS. over the final b. which, 
however, is probably erroneous. The word is thus used in the earlier Wicliffite version : 
" Now than ryse, and go forth, and spekynge do aseethe to thi seruauntis ;** in the 
later, " make satisfaccioun {salitfac servis /uiv," Vulg.) ii. Kings, xix. 7. In the later 
version it occurs in i. Kings, iii. 14 : " Therfore y swore to the hows of Heli that the 
wickidnes of hys hows shal not be doon a-seeth before with slayn sacrifices and 
jiftis;** in the earlier, ''schal not be clensid (ea7w>/«r," Vulg.) See also Mark xv. 
15. ** Asethe, eatitfaecio. To make asethe, eatUfacere.** oath. ano. " Satiifactio, 
(jsic) to make a-sethe.'* ortus. Chaucer, in the Rom. of Rose, 5600, rendered **asse£ 

asseth ;*' and in the passage previously cited from the Vis. of P. P. the line is printed 

by Mr. Wright, *'if it suffise noght for assetz," where he explains the word as syno- 
nymous with the common law term, assets. Compare fulftllyn, or make a-cethe in 
thynge >at wantythe ; p. 182. 

4 Some doubt may here arise as to the power of the contractions in the MS. coue- 
naunt, or conaunt. Compare breke couenant, p. 50, and see the note on ciinawnte, 
p. 108. 

Digitized by 




Make fet> or fat. ImpinguOf 

Make fowle, Deturpoy sordido. 
Make gay. Omo. 
Make free. Manumitto, 
Make hard. Induro (duro, p.) 
Make hevy in herte, or sory. 

ContristOf molesto, mesticOf 

CATH. (mestificoy p.) 
Make hevy yn wyghte. Gravo. 
Make ioy, idem ^uod ioyn, 

supra in I. (maken loyze, mpra 

in ioyze, p.) 
Make knowyn' (makyng open, 

HARL. MS. 2974.) Manifesto^ 

Make large. Amplio. 
Make lawfulle. Legitkno. 
Make lene. Macero. 
Make lesse. Minora. 
Make meende (make mynde, or 

brynge to mynde, K. p.) Com' 

Make mervelyows, or wonder- 

ftille. Mirifico, 
Make mery, and gladyii o)>er 

menn. Letifico; (not<h p-) supra 

in GLADYN, G. 

Make mery, or be mery yn 
herte or chere. Letor, jocor, 

Make more. Majoro, 

Make nesche (or make softe, 
tn/ra.) Mollifico, molleo, cat h. 

Make perfytte. Per/icio, 

Make pleyne. Piano, complano. 

Make playnte (make pleyne, 

s.) Conqueror, 
Make plentyvows (plentows, 

HARL. MS. S874.) Fecundo. 
Make qweynt, or wonderfulle 

(make qveynte, or wonder, s.) 

Make redy. Paro. 
Make ryche. DUo. 
Mare paste. Intero. 
Make sacrifyce. Sacrifico. 
Make sekyr in grawnte. Rait- 

ficoy confirmo. 
Make syghty (sythty, k. sythy, 

s.) Eluddo. 
Make softe, idem quod make 

MESCHE, supra. 
Make solempnyte (solempte, 

k.) Solempnizo. 
Make tokyn to a-nodyr, or 

bekyii' (beknynge, harl. ms. 

3274.) NuOy annuo. 
Make wery. FatigOy lasso. 
Make wythe chylde. Im- 

Makyngb. Fa^icioyfactura. 
Makly, or esyly.^ Faciliter 

(aptey p.) 
Malencolye, complexion* (male- 

coly, K.) Malencoliay vel ma- 

lancolia, secundum c. F. (^et 

malincolicay UG. in cirtiSy s.) 
Malencolyows (malecoliowus, 

K.) Malencolicus. 
Malapert (or presnmptuowse, 

infra.) E^ons. 

^ The adjective make has occurred already, and the reading of the King's Coll. MS. 
gives easy, as synonymous therewith. Jamieson cites Douglas, who oses the word in the 
sense of evenly, or equally. Compare Ang.-Saz. macalic, opportunus ; Belg. maklyk, 
easy. Sir Thomas Brown gives matchly as a Norfolk word ; it is likewise given by 
Forby, and signifies exactly alike, fitting nicely ; the modem pronunciation being, as 
stated by the latter, mackly. Ang.-Sax. maka, par. 

Digitized by 




Malarde, bryde (or luavelarde, 

infra,) Anas (^anaiinusy P.) 
Malawnder, sekeness.^ Morhus. 
Male of trussynge, and caryage.^ 

Male horse. Gerulus, cath. 

somar^iusy cath. in gerulus. 
Male, best or fowle, no femel. 

Masculusy CATH. mas, 
Malyce. MaUcia, 
Malycyowse. Maliciosus, 
Malyet, betyl (malle or malyet, 

H. p. malys, s.) Malleolus^ 

CATH. marculusy cath. 
Malkyne, or Mawt, propyrname 

(Molt, K, Mawde, w.) Maiildis 

(Matilda, p.) 
Malkynb, mappyl, or oven swe- 

pare (malpyle, s. ouen swepe, 

H. F,y Dossoriumy tersorium 

(dicc. s.) 
Malt. Braseum, 
Malte bowde (or wevyl, inJra,Y 

Gurgulioy KYLW. 

1 This term denotes most commonly the disease in the legs of horses, as causing 
them mal andare^ to go ill, according to Skinner*s observation. Malandria, however, 
in medieval Latin, as in French, malandrie, denoted generally an nicer, a disease diffi- 
cult of cure, as leprosy. See DucaDge. ** Malandrie, sickenesse, nuUandre. Malandre, 
maiandre, serot,** palso. In a veterinary treatise, Julius, D. viii. f. 1 14, the following 
remedy is given '* for the Malaundres. Tac parroures of chese, and tac hony, and tempre 
hem to-gedre, and ley hit on >e sore as hot as Kou may." 

• '* A male, mantiea, mvo/ttcnim." cath. ano. " Male, or wallet to putte geare or 
stuffe in, malle,'* faiaq. Herman says, *' Undo my male, or boudget {bulga, hip' 
poperOf bulgula.y* The horse by which it was carried was termed a somer, or sompter 
horse, sommier. See sombb hors, hereafter. In Norfolk the cushion to carry lug- 
gage upon, behind a servant attending his master on a journey, is still called a male- 

3 "Fomaculum, Fbmaeahy instrumeniwn ad opus /bmaeiSf a malkyne, or amalott.*' 
MED. MS. CANT. ** A malyuc (sic)i tersorium." cath. ano. " Malkyn for an ouyn, 
/rovgon,^* palso. Holliband renders " Waudrief the clout wherewith they dense, or 
sweepe the ouen, called a mankin. Escouillony an ouen sweeper, a daflin." '< A 
malkin, vide Scoven {sic), A Scovel or maulken, ligaculum, seopula, Penieillum, a 
bull's tail, a wisp, a shoo-clout, a mawkin, or drag to sweep an oven.** gouldm. This 
term is still used in Somersetshire. It would appear from the Medulla that this word 
was also used as an opprobrious appellation : " GallinaduSf i, homo debihSj a malkyn, 
and a capoun.'* Forby gives maukin, as signifying either a dirty wench, or a scarecrow 
of shreds and patches. 

* Compare bowdv, malte-worme ; p. 46, and buddb, flye ; p. 54. In the Eastern 
counties weevils that breed in malt are termed bowds, according to Ray, Forby and 
Moore ; the word is repeatedly used by Tusser. R. Holme says that ^' the Wievell eateth 
and devoureth com in the gamers : they are of some people called bowds.** Acad, 
of Arm. B. ii. p. 467. The appellation is applied to other coleopterous insects. Gower 
compares the envious to the ** sharnbudes kynde," which, flying in the hot sun of May, 
has no liking for fair flowers, but loves to alight on the filth of any beast, wherein 
alone is its delight. ** CrabrOt quedam musca, a gnat, or a shamebode. SearabeuSt a 
shame budde.'* mbo. R. Holme mentions the '* Blatta, or shorn bud, or painted 
beetle.** Ang.-Sax. sceam, siercus. In Arund. MS. 4S, f. 64, an insect is described 
which devours the young shoots of trees. " Bruk is a maner of flye, short and brodissh, 
and in a sad husc, blak bed, in shap mykel toward a golde bowde, and mykhede of 
twyis and >ryis atte moste of a gold bowde, a chouere, o>er vulgal can y non >erfore.** 
The name gold bowde probably denotes a species of ChrysomelOt Linn. 

Digitized by 




(Malte coMYS,^t«pramcoMYS,)i 
Maltyn', or make malt. Brasio, 
Maltynoe, Brcisiatura (bras- 

iacioy p.) 
Malstere, or maltestere (maltar, 

H, p.) Braaiatrixy brasiator. 
Malwe, herbe. Malvcu 
Manne. Homoy vir, mas, 
Manasse, or thretynge. Mine, 
Man ASS YD, or thret. Minatus, 
Manassynge. Minatusy commi- 


Mandraoge, herbe (mandrake, 
K. H. p.)^ Mandrogara, 

Mane of an horse. Juha^ cath. 

Maner, dwellynge place (or lord- 
ship, K.) ManeriuMy predium, 
muniumy comm. 

Maner, vse or custom. Modus, 
consuetudo (manerieSy P.) 

Maner of theve (maner, or thewe, 
K. H. s. p.) Mos. 

Mannfulle. Humanusy mag' 

1 ** Germinatus, commyn as malte." ortus. Harrison, in his Description of Eng- 
land, speaking of the making of malt, says that the grain is steeped, and the water 
drained from it ; it is then laid on the floor in a heap, ** nntill it be readie to shoote at 
the root end, which maltsters call commyng. When it beginneth therefore to shoot in 
this maner, they saie it is come, and then forthwith they spread it abroad, first thicke, 
and afterward thinner and thinner vpon the said floore (as it commeth), and there it 
lieth by the space of one and twentie dayes at the least." B. ii. c. 6. Holinsh. i. 169. 
R. Holme, among terms used by malt-makers, says that ** the comeing of barley, or 
malt, is the spritting bf it, as if it cast out a root." Acad, of Arm. B. iii. p. 105. The 
little sprouts and roots of malted barley, when dry, and separated by the screen, are 
still called in Norfolk malt.cumbs, according to Forby. Bp. Kennett gives ** Malt 
comes, or malt comings, the little beards or shoots, when malt begins to run, or come ; 
Yorkshire." Lansd. MS. 1033. See Craven Glossary and Jamieson. Compare IsL 
keima. Germ, keimen, germinare. 

s The strange and superstitious notions that obtained in olden times regarding the 
mandrake, its virtues, and the precautions requisite in removing it from the soil, are 
recorded by numerous writers. In an Anglo-Saxon Herbal of the Xth cent. Yitell. 
C. III. f. 53, V®, a representation will be found of the plant, at the side of which ap- 
pears the dog, whose services were used in dragging it up. The account there given of 
the herb has been printed by Mr. Thorpe in his Analecta. Alex. Neccham. who died 1227, 
mentions it as if it had been commonly cultivated in gardens, which should be decked, as 
he observes in his treatise de naturit rerumf ** rofis et Hliis, tolsequiiSf molis et mandra" 
gorU:^ Roy. MS. 12 G. XI. f. 77. The author, however, of the treatise on the qualities 
of herbs, written early in XVth cent., who appears to have cultivated in his herber at 
Stepney many botanical rarities, speaks of the " mandrage " as a plant that he had 
seen once only. He admits that as to any sexual distinction in the roots, " kynde 
neuere jaf to erbe |»e forme and he kynde of man : some takyn seere rootys, and keruyn 
swuche formys, as we ban leryd of vpelonders ;" Arund. MS. 42, f. 31, v®. The curious 
relation that he gives of his detection of an aged man, who kept in a strong chest a 
mandrake root, which brought him daily *' a fayre peny,'* is a remarkable illustration 
of the credulity of the age. See further on this subject Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 83, v* ; 
Trevisa*s version of Barthol. de Propr. B. xvij. c. 104 ; Bulleine*s Bulwarke of Defence, 
p. 41 ; Browne's Vulgar Errors, and Philip's Flora Historica, i. 324. Singular re- 
presentations of the ** mandragolo *' and '* mandragolat* executed by an Italian de- 
signer in the earlier part of the XVIth cent., are preserved in the Add. MS. 5281, 
f . 1 25 and 1 29, v<». The dog drags up the monstrous root by a chain attached to its ancles, 
whilst his master stops his ears, to escape the maddening effects of the mandrake's screams. 

Digitized by 




(Manfulli, k. h. s. p. Viriliter, 

humane, magnanimitei'.^ 
Magnete, precyowse stone. 

Magnypyen, or make mykyl 

of thynge yn preysynge (make 

moche preysynge of a thinge, p.) 

Mann HOOD. Humanitas, viri- 

Many. Multus, 
Manycle. Manicttf c. p. cathena, 

secundum sacram scripturam. 
Manymanerys, or manyfold. 

Multiformis, multipharius, mul- 

Manyfolde wyse. Muiiipharie, 

Many maner wyse, idem est 
MANiURE(maniowre, 8. p.) Man- 

sorium, presepium, c. p. pre- 

Mankyp, or maymyd.* Muti- 

Mankkyn*, or maynyn'. Mutilo. 
Mankynge, or maymynge. Mu- 


Manne of law. JurisperituSf 

scriha (legisperitus, p.) 
Manne qwellare. Homicida, 

cedes, sanguinarius, cath. 

(plagiarius, p.) 
Mann qwellynge, or man slaw- 

tur (manslawt, k. s.) ffomi- 

cidium, cedes, c. p. 
Manuele, booke to minster wythe 

the sacramentys.^ Manuale, 


Mappel, idem quod malkyn, 

Mapulle, tree. Acer. 
Marbul, stone. Marmor. 
Marbul, whyghte stone. Parium, 

c. F. 
Marschale. Marescallus. 
Marchaunte. Mercator, ne- 

gociator, institor, cath. 
Marchaundyse. Mercimonium, 

commercium, merca(n)cta, 
Marchauntysyn', or chafferyii'. 

Mercor, negocior. 
Marc HE, myddys be-twyx ij. cmi- 

trees (a-twixyn, k. be-twyn, s.)^ 

Marckia, confinium, c. f. 

1 This word seems to be derived from manctrt, or the old French manche^ mutilated, 
deprived of the use of a hand, or a limb. The participle ** man kit,** maimed, occurs 
in Golagros and Gawane, 1013. See also the passages cited by Jamieson. Compare 
Teut. mancken, Belg. minken, muiilare. 

s The manuale occurs among the service books which, at the s]mod of Exeter, in 
1287, it was ordained that every parish should provide ; Wilk. Cone. ii. 139. The 
Constitutions of Abp. Winchelsey, in 1305, comprise a similar requisition. Lyndwood 
defines it as containing *' omnia qutB — speetant ad tacrameniorum et tacramentalium 
wiinittrationemV It comprises also the various forms of benediction ; and in the 
printed editions of the Manuale ad uaum Sarum are added the curious instructions for 
the seclusion of lepers. *'Manuels'' are included amongst the books which, by the 
Stat. 3 and 4 Edw. VI. were " cleerelie and utterlie abolished, and forbidden for euer 
to be used or kept in this realme.*' 

s Mappel seems to be a diminutive of the old French mappe, a clout to wipe anything 

^ ** X marchey marchia, mariiima.^^ cath. ano. "Marches bytwene two landes, 
frontiires,^* palsg. The frontiers of a country were termed in medieval Latin marchia. 

Digitized by 




Marche, monythe. Marcius. 
Mare, or nyjhte mare.^ Epiaitet. 
Mare, or wjche. Magusy magay 

scigana, uo. in saigio. 
Margery, propyr name. Mav' 

(Margaret, proper name, p. 

Margery, perle.^ Margarita. 
Maroyne, or brynke. Mar go. 
Mary, propyr name. Maria. 
Mary, or marow of a boon 

(marwhe, K. H. marughe, p.) 

Maryable, abylle to be maryed. 

NtibiUs, c. V. 

Mary AGE. Mar(i)tagium, can- 

Maryce of a fen (or myre, or 

moore, infra,) Maritcus, la- 

bina, UG. v. in L. et comm. 
Maryyn* (marytyn, k.) Marito. 
Marke, propyr name. Marcus. 
Mark, of money. Marcha, 
Market, of byynge and syllynge. 

Mercatus, c. f. 
Market place. JForum, c. f. 

mercaioriumj UG. in merco, et 

KYLw. emptorium, mercatusy 

c. F. 
Market daschare.^ arcum- 

Jbranusy ug. in circum. 

in French, marchei; and in Britain the terms *' marches of Wales — the Northern 
marches/' were still in use at no very remote period. Ang.-Sax. mearoe, Jines. See 
Kilian and Wachter. The verb to march, to border upon, is used by Gower ; Sir John 
Maunderile also describes one course for the pilgrim to the Holy Land "thorghe 
Almanye, and thorghe the kyngdom of Hungarye, that marchethe to the lond of Polayne 
{quod conterminum ett.)** See Yoiage, pp. 8, 50. 

1 It has been affirmed that the Mara was reverenced as a deity by the Northern 
tribes ; in Britain it appears only to have been regarded as a supernatural being, the 
visits of which were to be avert^ by physical charms, such as the hag-stone, called in 
the North the mare-stane. Of the popular belief respecting the Ephialtes see the 
curious passages printed by Mr. Wright in the Introduction to the Trial of Alice Kyteler ; 
and Keysler, Ant. Sept. p. 497. Chaucer gives in the Miller's Tale, v. 3481, a singular 
night spell, to preserve the house from the approach of spirits, and *' the nightes mare.*' 
** Night mare, ffoubttn," palso. It was termed in French godemare, according to 
Cotgrave. Ang.-Sax. mara, ineubut. 

« •* A margaryte stone, margaritaJ** cath. ano. ** Margery perle, nacle,'** palso. 
In Trevisa*s version of Higden*s Polych. B. i. c. 41, amongst the productions of Britain, 
are mentioned ** muscles, that haue within hem margery perles of alle maner of colour 
and hewe, of rody, and reed purpure, and of blewe, and spedaUy and moost of white." 
Chaucer speaks of the precious <' margarite perle,'* formed in a blue muscle shell on 
the sea coast of <' the More Britaine ;" Test, of Love, B. iii. In Arund. MS. 42, 
f. IS, Y*t allusion is made to the supposed cause of the formation of *' margery perle — 
produced in muscle, or cokle, from dew of heaven." In the Wicliffite version pearls 
are called *' margaritis," Matt. vii. 6 ; ziii. 46. Horman observes that " margaritis be 
called pearies, of a mountayne in the see of Ynde, called Permula, where is plentye of 

* This term is synonymous with that used by Chaucer in reference to the Miller of 
Trumpington, described as being proud as a peacock, and whom none dared to touch or 
aggrieve ; " He was a market-beter at the full." B«ve's T. 3934. The old Glossarist 
explained this as denoting one who made quarrels at the market, but it seems rather to 
imply one who s wa g g ers about, and elbows his way through the crowd. ** A merket* 

Digitized by 



Marl, or chalke. Creta, c. v. 
Marlpytte, or chalke pytte. 

Marlyd, or snarljd. Ulague' 

atusy innodatus. 

gf ARLYD, as lond, k. Cretatus.) 
arlyn', or snarlyn',* Ulaqueo, 
Marmesbt, beeste. Zinziphalusj 
cenozephalusy kylw. tnammo- 
netus, c. F. marmonettts, comm. 

Martloge.2 Martilogiumj kylw. 
MARTNETjbjrd (tnartenet,K.H.p.)* 

Turdus, padellusy pandellus. 
Marter. Martir. 
Mar WE, or felawe yn trauayle 

(or mate, infra; marowe, p,)^ 

SociuSi compar (todalis, p.) 
Marowe, itlem quod mary. 
Massage. Nuncium^ legatum^ 


beter, eircum/orafius,** cath. ano. ** Cireum/oranuSf a goere aboute J>e market.** 
ifKD. ** Batre Us rues, to revell, jet, or swagger up and down the streets a nights. 
Bateur de pavez, an idle, or continuall walk-street; a jetter abroad in the streets," 
rendered also under the word PavS ** a pavement beater, a rakehell,*' &c. cotg. 

1 To marl is retained as a sea term, signifying, according to Ash, to fasten the sails 
with writhes of untwisted hemp dipped in pitch, and called marlines. Compare Dutch, 
marrelen, to intangle one in another ; Dan. merling, pack-thread. 

* The martyrologium was, in the earlier times, Uie regif ter of names of saints and 
martyrs, which served to bring each successively to the memory of the foitbful, on the 
anniversary of his Passion. At a later period the term denoted, in monastic establish- 
ments especially, the register more properly called necroioghtm, or obituary, wherein 
were inscribed the obits and benefactions of those who had been received into the fra- 
ternity of the congregation, and whose names were thus in due course brought to mind, 
being recited day by day in the chapter, and suitable prayers said. The martyrology 
was termed also liber vita, and the memorial inscribed annotatio Regulce, because it was 
generally annexed to the Rule, and connected therewith was the obituary, wherein the 
deaths of abbots, priors, and members of the congregation in general, were recorded. 
The martyrologium occurs next to the regula canonicorumf among the gifts of Bp. 
Leofric to Exeter, in 1050. The nature of the entries made may be seen by Leiand's 
" thingges excerptid out of the martyrologe booke at Saresbyri,** and at Hereford. 
Itin. iii. f. 64 ; viii. f. 79. A remarkable specimen of such a register is supplied by the 
Liber Vita of Durham, commencing from Xth century ; cott. ms. dgm. a. tii. See 
Kennett's Glossary to Par. Ant. In the version of Vegecins attributed to Trevisa, 
Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that the Roman legions, *' with her chosen horsemen 
i-rolled in the constables martiloge (matricula), were euer-more myghty i-nowe to kepe 
her wardes,*' without auxiliaries. B. ii. c. 2. It is here put for the muster-roll, 
termed album, or pittacium, 

> The martinet or martlet is the Hirundo urbiea, Linn, and both appellations appear 
to have been taken from the French. Skinner considers it to be a diminutive of the 
proper name, comparing the usage of calling a parrot or a starling Richard, or a ram 
Robert, and rejects as fonciftil the conjecture of Minsheu that the name martinet waa 
given in allusion to its arrival at the end of March, and migration before St. Martin*a 
day. **Martynet, a byrde, martinet,** palso. 

* The term marrow is used in this sense by Tusser, but appears to be no longer 
known in East Anglia. It is retained in the Northern, Shropshire, and Exmoor 
dialects ; see the quotations given in the Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. It occurs in 
the Townl. Myst. p. 110. ** A marrow, or fellow, socius.*' oouLDif. Minsheu wonld 
derive it from the Hebrew. 


Digitized by 




MASSANOERE(mas8ager, K.^Nun- 

cius, legattM, veredaiiusy c ath. 
Maschel, or rothyr, or masch- 

scherel.* Remulusy palmulay 

Maschyn, yn brewynge, Misceo. 

(jpandoxoy s.) 

Maschynoe. Mixtura, mivtio. 
Masse, or gobet of mete, or other 

lyke. Massa. 
Masere.2 Murrusy Dice, murroy 

UG. in amarua. 
Massy, no5t hole. Solidus. 
Masyl, or mazil, sekenesse.^ 

1 ThiB term evidently implies the implement used for mashing or mixing the malt, to 
which, from resemblance in form, the name rudder is also given. In Withal*s little 
Dictionary, enlarged by W. Clerk, among the instmments of the Brew- house, is given 
** a rudder, or instrument to stir the meash-fatte with, tnotaculum.*' 

> **A maser, cantaruSt murra, murreus: hec murpit arbor e«/. " cath. ano. 
<* Masar of woode, masihre, hanap.** palsg. There can be little doubt that the 
maser, the favourite drinking vessel used by every class of society in former times, 
was called mumts, from a supposed resemblance to the famed Myrrhene vases of 
antiquity. The maser was, however, formed of wood, especially the knotty-grained 
maple, and esteemed in proportion to the quality of the veined and mottled material, 
but especially the value of the bands and rings of precious metals, enamelled, chased, 
or graven, with which the wood was mounted. In Latin this kind of vessel was called 
mazerinus, maderinug, madeiinus, masdrinumf &c. in French madre, ma<«/tn, or ma- 
zerini and it seems probable that the name mether, applied to the ancient cups of wood 
preserved in Ireland, may be of cognate derivation. Amongst innumerable instances 
where mention occurs of the cyphus murreus, or maser, in wills and other documents, 
may be cited the Inventories taken at St. Paul's, 1295, printed by Dugdale, and at 
Canterbury, 1328, given by Dart from Cott. MS. Galba, E. iv. f. 185. In the Register 
of benefactors of St. Albans, Nero, D. viii. f. 87, Thos. de Hatfelde, Bp. of Durham, 
1345, is represented holding his gift in his hands, namely, a covered mazer, " cyphum 
tuum murreum, quern Wesheyl nottris iemporibus appellamtts.** A maser very similar 
in form, but without a cover, was in the possession of the late John Gage Rokewode, 
Esq. It is of knotty, dark -coloured wood, mounted with metal : on the small plate, 
termed cru8ta, attached to the bottom, is graven the monogram IHC. and around the 
brim the following couplet : 

*' -f- Hold )owre tunge, and sey \>e best, 
and let jowre neyjbore sitte in rest : 
Hoe so lusty)>e god to plese, 
let hys ney^bore lyue in ese." 
Similar instances of masers bearing inscriptions may be found in Testam. Ebor. i. 209, 
and Richard's Hist, of Lynn, i. 479. Doublet, in his Hist, of St. Denis, describes 
the richly-ornamented '' hanap de boia de mardre,^* which had been used by St. Louis, 
and presented to that church. '' VermiculatuSf variaius ad modum vermis ^ dittinctus, 
rubeust maderde." med. ** Madri, of wood whose grain is full of crooked and speckled 
streakes, or veins.** core. Plantin, in the Flemish Diet. 1573, gives '* Maser, un 
noBud ou boate h un arbre nommie erable. Maseren hout, acemum lignum,** In Syre 
Gawene and the Carle a lady's harp is described, formed ** of masere fyne,** v. 433, 
which Sir F. Madden explains to be the wood of the maple. See on the manufacture 
of ** hanas de madre** the Beglementt sur let mStiere de Paris au XIII. sQcle; 
Documents inidits sur Vhisioire de France f p. 112 edited by Depping. Compare 
&ONNYN, as masere, or other lyke, hereafter. 

' ** Lepra^ quedam in/irmitas, meselrye. Zjcprosus, mesell, or full of lepre." ortus. 


Digitized by 




Serpedoy variola, volatica, se- 

cundum phisicos, 
Maselyd. Serpiginosusj vel set' 

pigionatusy volaticiosus. 
Maske of a nette. Ma^tday 

CATH. et c. F, 
Masone, werkemaan. Lathomiu. 
Masonrye. Laihomia. 
Masonys ex. LcUhomegch comm. 

asciolus, UG. in acuo. 
Masonys logos. Lapidicina, 

UG. in laos. 
(Masse, or messe, infra. Missa.) 
Mast of a schyppe. Mains, cath. 
Mast hog (or, h. p.) swyne 

(mastid swjrne, k. maste, s.)' 

Maialisy cath. 
Mastyf, hownde (or mestyf, 

infra.) Spartanus, comm. 
Mastyk, spyce. Ma^Hx. 

Mastyn beestys. Sagino, im- 

Mate, idem quod felaw, supra 

in F. (or marwe, k.) 
Matte, or natte. Matta, c. f. 

storium, c. f. et uo. in stasis, 

mattukt, c. F. 
Mateynys. MatuHne. 
Matere. Materia. 
Matter as, vndyr clothe of a bed 

(matrace, k.) Lodix, cath. 

Matfelon, herbe.2 Jacia nigra; 

et alba dicitur scabyowse, vel 

covwede (cowewed, k. cobbed, p.) 
Matyn at the chesse (mattyn, 

s. p.) Mato, if. lihro de tribus 

Dietis, capitulo ij. 
Matynge at the chesse. Matacio; 

in lihro Uj. de dominis, ca. ij. 

It appears that, though this term was frequently used as synonymous with leprosy, they 
were sometimes considered as distinct. See Roquefort, 9. Mese/. R. Brunne calls 
the leprous Baldwin, King of Jerusalem, **\>e meselle,*' and states that for '*foule 
meselrie he comond with no man.** Langt. Chron. p. 140. In the earlier Wicliffite 
version the Syrian Naaman, iv. Kings, c. 5, and the four lepers in Samaria, c. 7, are 
called *' mesels.*' See also Sir Tristrem, p. 181 ; Vis. of Piers P. v. 1624, 4689, and 
11,024; Chaucer, Persones T. &c. ** A meselle, serpedo.'* cath. ang. ** Mesyll, a 
sicke man, mtteav. Mesyll, the sickenesse, meselUrie.*' palso. *' MeseaUf a meselled, 
scurvy, leaporous, lazarous person.*' coto. See Weber's notes on Amis and Amiloun, 
and Jamieson. 
> Masty signifies swine glutted with acorns or berries. A.-S. mseste, escat baeca, 

** Ye mastie swine, ye idle wretches, 
FuU of rotten slow tetches.** Chaucer III. B. of Fame. 

'* Masty, fatte, as swyne be, gra*. Maste for hogges, noffriture hpovrceaux, Acome, 
mast for swyne, gland. Many a falowe dere dyeth in the wynter for faulte of maste 
(fHa8t)f and that they haue no yonge springes to brouse vpon.** palsg. Compare 
MESTTP, hogge, or swyne ; and fat fowls, or beste, mestyde to be slayne, p. 151 . 

* •* Mattefelone, Jacea, herba eat J** cath. ang. It is said in a Treatise on the 
virtues of herbs, Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 78, t^. that **J(uia nigra ys an herbe )>at me 
clepyj> maudefelnne, or bolwed, or yrychard, oJ>er knoppewede : J>y8 herbe ha^ leuys 
ylyke to scabyose, and J>y8 herbe haj> a flour of purpul colour.*' In the Synonymia of 
herbs, Sloane MS. 5, is given " Jacea nigra. Gall, tnad/eloun, Ang. snapwort.*' Gerard 
mentions the English names knap-weed, bull-weed, and matfelon ; also materfillon, or 
matrefiUen. It is the Centaurea nigra, Linn. Parkinson affirms that this plant is 
called ** matrefillon Tery corruptly fh>m Aphglanthet,*^ because the flowers are leafless ; 
and Skinner suggests that from its scabrous nature it is suited to soouiige felons withal. 


Digitized by 




(Matted at the clies, p.) 
Mattok, instrument (or pykeys, 

or twjbyl, infra.) LigOy Dice. 

marra. Dice. 
Mat RONE, eld woman. Matrona. 
Maw. Jecur, 


Mavyce, byrde.^ Maviscus, me- 

Mawment.^ YdolumysimuUicrum. 
Ma(w)mentrye. Ydolatria. 
Mawmenter, or he J>at dothe 

mawmentrye. Ydolatra* 
(Mawnd, skype, s.^ SportulaJ) 
Mawndement (of a kinge, or a 

lorde, p.) Mandatum, precep' 

turn (edictumy p.) 
Mate, or mathe (worme, p.) idem 

Belg. matten, fatigare. Cow-wede is again mentioned hereafter, under the word 
ocuLus Christi. 

1 Id Norfolk, according to Forby, the smaller thrush only, Tardus musiciUt Linn, 
is called mavis. The name is used by Chaucer, R. of Rose, 619 ; and Spenser, 

** The Thrush replyes, the Mavis descant playes.'' Epithal. 81. 
" Mttm9CU9,ficedula, mawysse.*' Roy. MS. 17 C. XVll. «* Mauys, a byrde, mavuis,'* 
PALSO. ** ifauvis, a Mavis, a Throstle, or llirush.*' goto. See Jamieson. 

* It is evident that the name of Mahomet became, as in old French, a term denoting 
any idol ; as also mahomerie, in low Latin mahomeriat was used to signify the worship 
of any false deity. Amongst the charges brought by the King of France against Pope 
Boniface y III. one was that he <* haunted maumetrie." Langt. Chron. p. 320. In 
the version of the Manuel det PeccheSf R. Brunne uses the word, speaking of a '* prest 
of Sarasyne," who lived in *' maumetry.'' haul. ms. 1701, f. 2. See also R. Glouc. 
p. 14 ; Chaucer, Cant. T. 4656 ; Persone's T. p. 85 ; the Wicliffite version, i. Cor. 
zii. S; i. John, v. 21 ; and the relation of the conversion of King Lucius in Hardyng's 
Chron. Hall calls Perkin Warbeck the Duchess of Burgundy's ** newly-invented 
mawmet,*' and speaks of him as the '* feyned duke — but a peinted image." The cir- 
cumstance that this name was applied to him is shown likewise by the passage in Pat. 
14 Hen. VII. 1498, regarding the punishment of those persons in Devon and Cornwall 
who ** Michaeli Joseph rebelli et proditori nostro, aut cuidam idoiOf eive eimulacro, 
nomine Petro Warbekt infimi statue viro, adkaserint,** Rymer, xii. 696. So also 
Fabyan, relating the insurrections at Paris and Rouen in 1455, says that the men 
of Rouen *• made theym a mamet fatte and vnweldy, as a vylayne of the cytye, and 
caryed him about the towne in a carte, and named hym, in dyrysyon of theyr pry nee, 
theyr kynge." Chron. Part VII. 7 Charles VII. *• Chamoe, a mawmett. Pifftneue, 
a mawmett, or a fals mawmetrye, cubilalie eet,** MEn. ms. cant. ''A mawmentt, 
idoiufHf eimulachrum. Mawmentry ; a mawment place ; a mawment wyrscheper," 
&c. OATH. ano. ** Sitnulachrum — a mawmet, or an ydoll.'* ortus. ** Maumentry, 
baguenaulde, Maument, marmoeet, poupee,** palsg. " A maumet, i. a child's babe." 
oouLnMAN. See Mawment in Brockett, and the Craven Dialect. 

' ** Mawnde, ubi mete vesselle {eecale,)** cath. ang. Cazton says, in the Book for 
Travellers, ** Ghyselin the mande maker {corbiliier) hath sold his vannes, his mandes 
{corbillee) or corffes.'* " Manne, mandes a maunde, flasket, open basket, or pannier 
having handles." cotg. This word is given by Ray, as used in the North, and noticed 
likewise in the Craven Dialect. It is commonly used in Devon : see Palmer's Glos- 
sary. Ang. -Sax. mand, corbie. It seems, as Spelman has suggested, that the Maunday, 
or dole distributed on Holy Thursday, derived its name from the baskets wherein it 
was given, and not from the Latin mandatum, in allusion to the command of Christ, or 
from the French mendier. See a full account of the customs on this occasion in Brand's 
Popular Antiquities. " Maundy thursday, ievuedy abeolv.*' palsg. 

Digitized by 




quod MAKE, supra (may, or 

mache, s.)* 
Mede, drynke. Medoy c. f. idro' 

mellunh c. F. mulsunh UG. m 

wfor, et c. F, 
Meedb, rewarde. Premium, re^ 

tribuciOf merces, 
Medefulle. Meritorius. 
(Medewe, or mydewe, infra. 

(Medyatowre, idem quod meene, 

et menowre, infra.) 
Medycyne (or metycyne, infra.) 

Medyn, or rewardyii. Munero, 

Medle, or mengynge to-gedur of 

dyuerse thyngys. Mixtura. 

SIedlb coloure, p. Mixtura.) 
edlyn, or mengyn (menglyn, 

s.) Miaceo. 
Medlyn, or entermetyii (inter- 

mentyn, p.) Intromitto. 
Megyr, fy8cne.2 Megurue. 
(Mehche, k. or fela, s. metche, p.) 

Par, compar. 
(Meynprisyn, supra in mayn- 

prisyn, p.) 
(Meynpresynge, supra in mayn- 

prisinge, k. meyme prysynge, s.) 

(Mbyntbyne, supra in ma3mteyny 

Mbyntynour, idem quod inayn- 

^our, supra, et in aUd sillabd. 

(^Defensor, supportator.) 
Meyr, Major, pretor,prepositus. 
Me KB. Humilis, mansuetus. 
Mbke, and mylde, and buxum. 

Pius, clemens, henignus. 
Merely. Humiliter, pie, man-- 

suete, suppliciter. 
Mekenesse, or lownesse. ffu* 

Mekenesse, and softenesse. ilfan- 

suetudo, clemencia. 
Mek Y N, or make meke, and buxmn. 

Mekkynge, or a-botchement in 

byynge (mekment, or boche- 

ment, k. meckynge, h.) Am-- 

plificamentum, cath. supple- 

mentum, cath. auffmentum^ 

{auctorium, cath. p.) 
Meel of mete (mele, or mete, 

s. p.) Commestio, cibatus, UG. 

et c F. pastus, refeccio. 
Meele of come growndyn*. Pa- 

rina,far, cath. 
Melodye. Melodia. 
Melodyows. Melodiosus. 

1 From the alphabetical position, it appears that mate should here be read m a>b. In 
the Treatise of fishing with an Angle, in the St. Alban's Book, the following are given as 
baits for roach in July : *' The not worme, and mathewes, and maggotes, tyllMygbelmas.*' 
Sign. i. ij. Ang.-Sax. ma'Sa, vermU, In the Northern Dialect a maggot is called a 
mank ; see Brockett, Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. ** A mawke, cimex, lendex, 
tarmut, Mawky, ctrntcomt, tarmosus*^ oath. ano. *' Tarmutt Hmax, a mawke." 
Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. ** Tarma, vermis btadi, a mawke.** ortus. 

> It is not clear whether this is to be considered as an obsolete and local name for 
the mackarel, megaru$ having been previously given as the Latin name for that fish ; 
•ee p. 321. The Maigre, Seiana aqvila, Cuv. Umbra Rondtletiiy Willughby, the oe* 
lebrated delicacy of the Mediterranean, is a wandering fish, which occasionally hat 
been taken on the coasts of Britain ; but the name here seems to be rather a corrup- 
tion of the Latin, than derived from the French maigrt. See that word in Cotgrave. 

Digitized by 




MBLTE,be the ael£e.LiqueoyCATa, 

Melttn, or make to melte. 
lAquo^ CATH. liquido, cath. 

Meltynge. Liquefactio. 

Melwe, or rype (melowe, p.) 

Memoryal. Memoriale. 

Memoryal on a grawe, what so 
hyt be, in remembrawnce of a 
dede body (made in meend off 
ded man or woman, s.) Co- 
lossus, t. colens ossa, vo. in 

Mem B re, or lyfli, Memhrum 
(artus, P.) 

Mende. Memoriaf mencio, mens 
(recordado, p.) 

Meemde haver, or mendowre. 

Meendfulle, or of good meende. 
MemoiHosits c,v. (memor osus, s.^ 

Meene, myddjs (medyl, h. p.) 

Menb of a songe. IntercentuSy 

KYLW. (introcentus, s.) 
Meene, massyngere (massegere, 

K.) Intemtmcius. 
Meene, or medyatowre (or me- 

nowre, infra.) Mediator. 
Mene whyle. Interim. 
Meenly in mesure (meneli, k.) 

Mediocritery mensurate. 
Menoyn, idem quod medelyn, 

(Mengynge, s, Mixturch com* 

Meny, of howsholde.^ Familia. 
Menyn, or goon be-twene ij. 

partyes for a-corde (goo a-twyx 

for a-cord, harl. ms. 2374.) 

Menyn yn herte, wel or evyl. 

Intendoy cath. 
Menynge, a mannys purpos. /n- 

Menkte,^ or medelyd. Mixtusy 


1 This term, derived from the French maisnie or magnie, a family, troop, or the 
■aite of a great personage, in low Latin maisnada, or mamionata, is very frequently 
nsed by the old writers. Thus in the Wicliffite version , Job i. 3 is thus rendered : 
'* His possessioun was seuene thousand of shep— and ful meche meyne ** (famitia multa 
nimiit Vulg.^ See dso R. Glouc. pp. 167, 180 ; Tyrwhitt*s Glossary appended to 
Chaucer, and his curious observations on ' ' Hurlewaynes meyne.' ' Sir John Maunderile 
relates how the Great Chan, Changuys, riding *' with a fewe meynee,'' was assailed by 
a multitude of his foes, and unhor^, but saved by means of an owl. Voiage, p. 371. 
The term is used also to signify the set of chess-men, called in Latin /omt'/to, as in the 
Wardrobe Book 28 Edw. I. p. 351 : ** unafamilia pro scaccario dejatpide el crUtaUoJ** 
R. Brunne, in his version of Wace's description of the Coronation of Arthur, says that 
some of the courtiers ** drew forth meyn^ of the chequer.*' Caxton, in the Book of 
Travellers, says, *' Grete me the lady or the damyselle of your hous, or of your her- 
borough, your wyf, and all your meyne {vosire maUnye.y* ** A men^e, domus, domU 
cilium,/amilia,** cath. ano. Horman says, '* I dare not cople with myn ennemyes, 
for my meyny (turma) be sycke and wounded. A great meny of men can nat ones 
wagge this stone. Here cometh a great meny {turba.y* Palsgrave gives *' Meny, a 
housholde, menye. Meny of plantes, plantaige. Company, or meyny of shippes,^o//e. 
After a great shower of rayne yon shal se the water slyde downe ft-om the hylles, as 
thoughe there were a menye of brokes {tmg tat de ruisseaux) had their springy there.*' 

^ Mknltb, MS. menkte, k. s. p. menged, w. Gouldman gives the verb " to mein, 
vide mingle.'* Ang.-Sax. men^an, miscere. 

Digitized by 




Menowre, or medyatowre, idem 

quod mene. 
Menour frere, or frere menowre 

(menowre friyr', p.) Minor. 
Mensal knype, or borde knyfe. 

Mentel. Mantellu9, clamisy pal- 

Menuce, fysche.^ Silurusy ug. 

in sileoy menusoy dnalisy kylw. 
Meercere. Marcerus (merce' 

nariusy k.) 
Meercery, place or strete where 

mercerys syllyn here ware (dwell 

or sell, p.) Merceria. 
(Mercery, cha&re, k. h. p, 


Mercy. Misericorduiy propicu' 

Mercyfulle. Misericors, pro- 

picitu (propiciatus, p.) 
Mercyfully. Misericorditer, 
Mercyment, or a-mercyment 

(ameercyment, s,) MnUa^ c. f, 

et KYLW, 

Mercuryb, sterre. Mercurius. 
Mercury, herbe.^ Mercurialis. 
Meere, horse. Equa, 
Mere, watur (mer, or see, water, 

w.) Mare. 
Meer, marke be-twene ij. londys 

(atwen to londys, K.y Meta, 

merisy c. F. et uo. Umesy c. f. 

(divia,inter/imumy k. diuisa, p.) 

' ** 4forus e$i piseiSf B. mennBe.** mkd. Seethe EquiToca of John de Garlandia, 
with the interpretations of Magister Galfiridns, probably the same as the compiler of 
the Promptorium, where it is said *' Mena eat quidam piecia, Angliee a penke, or a 
menew penke, nc dictut a mena, Grece, quod Ittna Latine; quia secundum inerementum 
et decrementum lune eingulit menaibue ereecit et decretdt.*' Ed. Pynson, 1514. The 
minnow is still called pink in Warwickshire, and some other parts of England ; see 
also Plot's Hist. Ozf. and Isaac Walton. Gooldman gives ** pitciculi mmuti, small 
fishes called menews or peers.*' 

> Gautier de Bibelesworth speaks of *' mercurial degraunt valur,** where the English 
name, given in the Gloss, is '* smerewort." The ancient herbalists are diffuse in their 
accounts of the virtues of this plant : it is stated by Dioscorides and other writers that 
the species mariparum endfiMUniparum produced the effect of engendering male or 
female children. 

s In Norfolk, according to Forby, a Mara-balk, or mere, is a narrow slip of un- 
ploughed land, which separates properties in a common field. " Limee est caUis et finis 
dividens agros, a meere. Bifinium, locus inter duos fines, a mere, or ahedlande.*' mbd. 
MS. CANT. " A meyre stane, bifiniumf limes.*^ cath. ano. In a decree, t. Hen. VI. 
relating to Broadway, Worcestershire, printed by Sir Thomas Phillipps, part of the 
boundaries of Pershore Abbey is described as the ** mere dyche.'* In the curious herbal, 
Arund. MS. 42, f. 55, it is said that ** Carui — growe> mykel in merys in \>e feld, and 
in drye placysof gode er)>e.** In Sir Thos. Wharton's Letter to Hen. VIII. in 1543, 
regarding the preservation of peace in the North country, is the recommendation ** that 
all the meir grounddes of Yngland and Scotland to bee certanely knowne to the 
marchers, the inhabitanntes of the same." State Papers, v. 309. liie verb to mere, 
to have a common boundary, occurs in another document, printed in the same collec- 
tion ; see the Glossary in vol. ii. Leiand relates, Itin. vi. p. 62, that ** Sir John 
Dicons told me thatyn digging of a balke or mere yn a felde longgyng to the paroche of 
Keninghaul in Northfolk ther were founde a great many yerthen pottes yn order, cum 
eineribus mortuorum.** Elvot gives " terminalis tapis, a mere stone, laide or pyghte 
at the ende of sundry mens landes. Cardo, mere, or boundes which passeth through 

Digitized by 




Meresauce.^ Murtay necc. 
Merkb, tokyne. Signum, carac' 

ter, UG. 
Merke of bowndys, as dolys, and 

other lyke (supra in mere, p.)^ 

Tramaricia, cath. (meta, w.^ 
(Merke, or prykke, infra. Meta.) 
Merkyd, or merkyn (or morkyn, 

infra; morkyn, K. p. tokenyd, 

w.) Signatus* 
Merkyn. Signo, consignor 
Merkynoe. Signacio, 
Merlymge, fyshe. GamartUf 

merlingus^ comm. 
Merlyone, byrd (merlinge, p.) 

MeruluSf c. f. alietiis, c. f. 
Meum AY DY^.Cirenay sir en,CA.TH. 
Mervale. Mirahilcy prodigium, 

portentum, mirum. 

Mervelyn. Miror, admiror* 
Mervalyowse. Mirabilisstnirus, 
Mervelyowse yn werkynge, Mi- 

Messe of mete. Ferculum. 
Messe, or masse. Missa. 
Messboke. Missale, missalis* 
Mestyf, hogge, or swyne.* Mai- 

aliSy CATH. 

Mestyf, hownde, idem quod 
mastyf, supra; et spartanus, 
c. F. CATH. umber, kylw. 

Meysten, idem quod mastyn. 

Mestlyone, or monge come (or 
dragge, supra ; mestilione, corne, 
K. mongome, s.)^ Mixtilio, hi-- 
germen, UG. in bis. 

Mesurably. Mensurate (mO' 
derate, p.) 

ttie field.*' The following words occur in Gouldman : " To cast a meer with a plough, 
urbo, A meer, or mark, terminus^ meiOf limes, A meer stone, v. Bound.'* Ang.-Sax. 

1 ** Mere sauce for flesshe, savlmure.** palsg. The Anglo-Saxon name for pickle, 
or brine, was morode ; in old French mure, ** Saulmure, pickle, the brine of salt ; 
the liquor of flesh, or fish pickled, or salted in barrels, &c.'' cotg. 

> See the note on the word dole, p. 126. 

' See the note on the word mast hog, or mastid swyne, according to the reading of 
the Cambridge MS. In the Catholicon maialis is explained to be ** porous domesticus 
ei piftffuis, carens testiculis;** to which is added in the Ortus, ** a bargh hogge.*' The 
Winchester MS. agrees here in the reading mestyf, otherwise it might have been con* 
jectured that it should have been written mbbttd hogge ; the derivation in either case 
being apparently from the Ang.-Sax. msestan, saginare. Skinner supposes that the 
word mastiff, denoting a dog of unusual size, is also thence derived ; but it seems more 
probable that it was taken from the old French mestff, which, according to Cotgrave, 
signified a mongrel. In the Craven Dialect a great dog is still called a masty. 

* Meslin-bread, made with a mixture of equal parts of wheat and rye, was, according 
to Forby, formerly considered as a delicacy in the Eastern counties, the household loaf 
being composed of rye alone. The mixed grain termed maslin is commended by Tusser. 
It was used in France in the concoction of beer, as appears by the regulations for the 
brewers of Paris, 1254, who were to use ** grains f c^estdLsavoir, d^orge^ de mestuel, et 
de dragieJ** Reglemenis, t. Louis IX. ed. Depping, p. 29. In 1327, it appears by the 
almoner's accounts at Ely that five quarters of m^ng cost 20«. and two quarters of 
com 9«. 4d. Stevenson's Supp. to Bentham, p. 53. In 1466 Sir John Howard paid, 
amongst various provisions for his " kervelle ** on a voyage to '' Sprewse, for a combe 
of mystelon, ij.«." Household Expenses, presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. 
Botfield, Esq. p. 347. See also a letter, about 1482, in the Paston Correspondence, 
Y. 292. In the Inventory of Merevale Abbey, taken in 1538, occurs ** grayne at the 

Digitized by 




Mesure (or met, infraS) Men- 

Mesure, yn* manerys. Tempe- 

ranctoy moderaciOy modificacioy 

Mesure of mete, of lycorys, as 

pottys, and oJ)er lyke. Metreta, 


Mesure, in vse of cloysterrys («c) 
nedefulle thyng3rs (mesure, and 
wyse govemawnce of clothys, 
and mete, and nedeful thyngys, 
s.) Frugalitas. 

Mesuryd W3rthe mesure. Men" 

Mes UR YD yn manerys. Moderatus. 

Mesuryd yn* qualyte. Tempo- 

MesuryR, or metyn. Menwro, 
mencioTy cath. 

Mesuryn yn vertu. Modificoy 

Met, idem quod mesure, supra 
(mette, s. p.) 

Met, scantylyon* (mete, or me- 

sure, or scantlyon, s.)^ Amonay 

c. F. (et non annonoy s.) 
(Metche, or peere, infi*a. Par,) 
Meete, fode. Cibusy escdy pran- 

diumy epulum, epule. 
Mete, or fyt, or evene (meet, 

and feyt, or evyn, s,y JEquus. 
Metycyne^ (medycyn, or met- 

tecyn, s.) Medicina. 
Metesytel, to kepe in mete 

(metfyttyl, or almary, k. mete 

fetyll, or almeiy, p.)^ Cibutumy 

c. F. UG. in cilleo. 
Metel. Metallum. 
Mete yevare (mete3evare, k.^ 

Dapsilisy dapaticusy UG. v. in A. 
Mete corne. Paniciumy cath. 

(calamus mensurey dicit c. f. s.) 
Metetabyl, that ys remevyd 

whan mete ys done. CUlaha^ 


Metyn to-gedyr yn wey or place. 

Meet wythe an el wande (eUi- 

wonde, k.) Ulnoy Dice. 

monastery, myskelen, xij. strykes.'' At the dinner given in 1661 to the Dnke of 
Norfolk by the Mayor of Norwich, there were provided ** xvj. loves white bread, \y,d. 
xviij. loves wheaten bread, ix.<f. iij. loves mislin bread, i^.^f.'' Leiand, Itin. vi. zvij. 
Caxton says, in the Book for Travellers, that " Paulyn the meter of come hath so 
moche moten of come and of mestelyn (mestelon) that he may no more for age.*' Plot 
states that the Oxfordshire land termed sour is good for wheat and "miscellan," namely, 
wheat and rye mixed. Hist. Oxf. p. 242. In the Ortns, mixtUio is rendered " medeled 
come ;** in Harl. MS. 1587, " mastdeyne.** ** Mastil^one, bigermen, miriilioJ** cath. 
ANO. Palsgrave gives *' mestlyon come," and '* masclyne come;*' and Cotgrave 
** Tramoiif meslin of oats and barlie mixed. Meteil, messling, or misslin, wheat and 
rie mingled, sowed^ and used together.** See dragge, menglyd come, p. 130. 

1 ** A mette, mensural meireta, et proprie vini, meiron Grece.** cath. ang. 
**Atnona dicitur calamus mensure.** ortus. In the Northem Dialect met still sig- 
nifies a measure. See scantlyon, or scanklyone. Equissium. 

« — for evene, ms. Mete or evyn, k. 

s Medyctnk, MS. metecyne, h. p. 

* Cubitum, MS. In the Medulla cibuium is rendered "a mete whycche.'' See 
Almery, p. 10. Possibly the long chest, such as is frequently termed a bacon-hutch, 
is here intended, as it might serve also the purpose of a bench ; Ang.-Sax. setl, aedile, 
k settle is, however, properly the high-backed bench placed near the fire. See Forby. 



Digitized by 



Meete londe, or set bowndys. 

MetOy CATH. 

Metynge to-gedyr. Ohviacio, 
Metynge wyflie mesurys. Men- 

Metyr. Metrum. 
(Metwande, idem quod 3erde, 

infra; met wonde, K. p. Ulna.y 
Mbvyn, or steryn. Moveo, 

Mevyn, or remevyn (or remown, 

infra.) Amoveo, 
Mevynge, or sterynge. Motus, 

mocio, commocio. 
Mychare.2 Capaxy c. f. man- 

ticulus, CATH. cleps vel cleptes, 

CATH, Jurunculus, erro, ug. v. 

in P. 
Mychekyne,* Pastilla. 

^ Stowe asserts that Hen. I. reformed the measures, and fixed the ulna by the length 
of his own arm, '* and now the same is called a yard, or a metwand.*' ** A meat- wand, 
tfirga*** oouldman. ** A meate-wand, verge par le moyen de laquelle on meeure 
qttelque longueur ou dietanee,** shbrwood. In Levit. xiz. 35, meneura, Vnlg. is 
rendered, in Coverdale's Bible, a "mcteyarde." Ang.-Sax. met-^eard. Palsgrave 
gives the verb, '* I measure clothe with a yerde, or mette yerde.** 

« Tapax^ MS. as also Mtchbry, Tapadtae, and Mychyn, Tapio, A mychare 
seems to denote properly a sneaking thief. Gower thus describes eecretum latrocinium ; 

** With couetise yet I finde 
A seruant of the same kinde, 
Which stelth is bote, and micherie 
With hym is cner in company.** 

See also Towneley Myst. pp. 216, 308, and the Hye way to the Spyttell honse. 

** Mychers, hedge crepers, fylloks and Inskes, 
That all the somer kepe dyches and baskes.'* Ed. Utterson, ii. 1 1 . 

It signifies also one who commits any sneaking, mean, or miserly act : and, according 
to Nares, a truant. Horman says, ** He strake hym through the syde with a dager, 
and ranne away like a mycher {latibundus aufugit,) He is a mychar (vagus^ non die- 
coluei) a rennar awey or a mychar (Jugitivus.y* " Micher, a lytell thefe, latronceav. 
Michar, bvUeonnier,** palso. ** Dramer^ to miche, pinch, dodge, to use, dispose of, 
or deliver out things by a precise weight, as if the measurer were afraid to touch them, 
Sec Vilain^ a churle, also a miser, micher, pinch pennie, penny father. Senaud, a 
craftie lacke, or a rich micher, a rich man that pretends himselfe to be very poore. 
Caqueraffe^ a base micher, scuruie hagler, lowsie dodger, &c. Caquedue, a niggard, 
micher,** &c. ooto. " To mich in a corner, deliieo, A micher, videTnumt.** gouldm. 
Tusser uses the term micher, which is not given in the East- Anglian Glossaries. 

s Chaucer uses the term mitche, R. of Rose, 5585, where it is explained by Tyrwhitt 
as signifying a manchet, a loaf of fine bread. The old French word nUche^ and Latin 
mica, or nUchiat signify, according to Roquefort and Ducange, a small loaf. ^'•Miea 
poniiur pro pane modico qui fit in curiie magnatorum vel in monatteriie.*' oath. 
Heame gives in the notes to the Liber Niger, p. 654, a quotation from the Register of 
Oseney, 53 Hen. Ill, wherein mention occurs of magna michuB, of the bisa and eala 
miehia; and Spelman cites a document which describes " albof panet, vocaiot michis." 
In 1351 Robert, Abbot of Lilleshall, granted <* viij, magnas micas majoris ponderie de 
pane convenius ** to Adam de Kaukbury ; and a corrody is enregistered in the Leiger 
Book of Shrewsbury Abbey, by which Abbot Lye granted, in 1508, to his sister, *• viij. 
panes vonvenluaUe vulgariter myches vocatoSy*' 8cc, Blakeway's Hist. ii. 129. Mychb- 
KYNE seems to be merely a diminutive. " Pastilla, a cake, craknell, or wyg.'* ortus. 

Digitized by 




Mychbry. Capacitasjfnanticula' 

tttStJurtulum, cath. cleptura, 
(Mychyn, p. Manticulo.) 
Mychyn, or pryuelj stelyii smale 

thjngys,* SurripiOfCATH.clepo, 

c. F. capioy c, F, Jurtulo (ca- 

paxoy H. marUiculoy harl. ms. 

MYDDAYJIferidieSy menmbrtayCF. 
Mydewb, or medewe. Pratui^. 
Myddyl, of )>e waste of mannys 

body. VastitctSy cath. astrosea, 
Myddyl, of a donghylle.2 Forica. 
Myddys, or the myd part of a 

thynge. Medium. 
Mydryf of a beste (midrym, 

K. H. s. p. myddryn, harl. ms. 

2274.) Diafragmoy diafrag- 

meuy Dice. 
Mydward, idem quod myddys, 

(Mydwe, supra in mydow, 8.) 
Mydwyfe. Obstetrix. 
Mygreyme, sekenesse (migrym, 

K. midgrame, h. mygrene, s. 

midgrym, p.)* Emigranea. 
Myghte (mihte, k. myhtte, s.) 

JFortUudoy vigoTy potencia. 

Myghty (mihti, k, myhty, s.) 

Fortis, potensy vigorosus. 
Myghtyly (mihtili, k. myhtyly, 

s.) ForHteVy pbtenteVy vaUdey 

Mykyl. MuUus. 
Myllare. Molendinarius. 
Myllarys thowmbe, fysche 

(millatliowine, fishe, k.) Capita. 
Mylchb, or mylte (or spleen, 

tn/ro.) Spleny cath. laA:tisy 

proprie mylche. 
Mylchb, or mylke of a cowe. 

Mylchb cowe. Bassarisy vel 

vomica mulsarioy c. f. 
Myyld, and buxum. Piusy be- 

nignusy mansuetusy supples. 
Myldew. Uredoy c. f. a(fi)- 

rugOy cath. erugo, c. f. 
Myle. Miliar Cy miliariumy c. f. 

(leucay K.) 
Mylle. Molendinumy c. f. 
Myllyfoly, herbe. Millefoliumy 

sanguinariay cath. 
Myllehowse. Molendinay mo- 

lendinumy c. f. 
Myllestone. Molaris. 

1 A digtinctioii is here made in Pynson's and the other editions of the Promptoriam. 
Mychyn. Mantieuto. Mychyn, or stelyn pryuely. SurripiOy clepOy capaxo, 

* Ilie reading of the Winch. MS. is Myddyl, or dongyl, so termed possibly from its 
position in the fold-yard. In the North the Ang.-Sax. middins, aterquiiinium, is a 
term still in nse, as in the Towneley Myst. p. 30. ** Fumarhan, myddyng." Roy. MS. 
17 C. XYII. " A middynge, »terquilinium,** cath. ano. The following lines occur 
in a poem, where man is e^^orted to contemplate heaven and hell, the world, and sin : 

" A faler mydding of Tilonie, 
Saw thon nenere in londe of pes, 
Than thou art with in namely, 
Than hastow matere of pride to cesse." Add. MS. 10,053, p. 14(*. 

s ** Emigraneus, vermis capitis f Anglice the mygryne, or the hede worme. ' ortus. 
** J>e emygrane, emigraneus. J>e mygrane, ubi emigrane." cath. ano. " Migrym, 
a sickenesse, chagriuy maigre,** palso. Remedies are given in Arund. MS. 42 ^ 
f. 105, ▼«. 

Digitized by 




Mylle trow, or benge (mill 

troughe, or beugge, sic^ p.)' 

Mylke, idetn quod mylche, supra. 
Mylke mete, or mete made wphe 

mylke. Lactatum, cath. (lac- 

ticiniutn, p.) 
Mylke stop, or pajle. Multra, 

vel multrunif cath. 
Mylkyn. Mulgeo, cath. 
Mylte, idem quod mylche, supra. 
Myynde, idem quod meende. 
Mynyn'oF songys (mynym,HARL. 

MS. 2274, P.) Minima. 
Mynstral (or gluman, supra.) 

Ministraulus {histrio, p.) 
Mynstralsye (or glu, supra.) 

Musica^ organicum, 
Mynstre, chyrche. Monasterium. 
M YN yster, servawnt (or mynster, 

K. p.) Ministei\famulusy setwus. 
Mynte, herbe. Minta. 
Myntyn, or amyn towarde, for to 

assayen (myntyn, or ame to- 

wor, or assayen, h. p. sayyn, s.)^ 

(Mynure, s.* Miner a.) 
(Minute of an howur, k. s. Mi- 

Myracle. Miraculum, 
Myre, or maryce. Labina, c. f. 

paluSy CATH. 

Myry yn chere. Letus,jocundus, 

jocosusy hilluris. 
Myryly. Gaudenter,hiilariter^ 

letanter (^jocose^ p.) 
Myry tottyr, chylderys game 

(miritotyr, K.)^ Oscillum, cath. 

et c. F. 
Myry weder, or sofle wcder 

* See BENGERB of a myllc, p. 31. *^ Faricapaa^ an hoper." ortus. 

^ " I mente, I gesse or ayme to hytte a thynge that I shote or throwe at, le enne, 
I dyd ment at a fatte bucke, but I dyd hyt a pricket.'* palsg. Forby gives " minkf 
mint, to attempt. Alem. meinta, intention* See Brockett's Glossary, and Jamieson, v. 
mint, signifying to aim at, to have a mind to do something. Ang.-Saz. myntan, disponere. 

' MinerOy according to Joh. de Garlandia, is a vein of ore, a mine ; or, as Upton 
nses the word, a mine formed during a siege. Mil. Off. i. c. 3. 

^ Chaucer, in the Miller's Tale, puts the following taunt into the mouth of the 
Smith, who awakes Absolon, bidding him seek vengeance for the ill success of his amour : 

** What eileth you ? some gay girle, God it wote, 

Hath brought you thus on the merytote.'* Cant. T. 3768. 

Tyrwhitt prints this line — ** upon the viretote.** Speght, in his Glossary, explains the 
word as signifying a swing, oscillwnt suspended from a beam for the amusement of 
children. Strutt mentions the meritot, or meiTy trotter, in his Sports and Pastimes, 
p. 236, and in the Orbis Sensualium of Comenius it is given under the sports of boys, 
who are represented ** swinging themselves upon a merry-totter, super petaurum ae 
agitantes et otciliantes.** Ed. Hoole, c. cixxvj. Skinner gives this word on the au- 
thority of the Diction. Angl. 1658, and supposes it to be of French derivation, from 
virer and iosty quickly. In the Cath. Ang. the word is twice given, under the letter 
M. **A Merytotyr, oseillumt petaums ;** and again under the letter T. **Amery 
Totyr, petaurus, etc. ubi a mere totyr.*' Palsgrave gives ** Tyttertotter, a play for 
chyldre, balenchoeres.** See the Craven Glossary, v. Merry-totter, and Brand's Po- 
pular Antiqu. See hereafter totyr, or myry totyr, and the verb wawyn, or waueryn 
vn a myry totyr, oscillo. According to Forby to titter, or titter- cum-totter, signifies in 
Norfolk to ride on each end of a balanced plank. 

Digitized by 




(mery weddyr, s.)* Mcdaciaj 

c. F. 
Myrke, or dyrke (ihirke, k. h. a. 

darke, p.)^ Ohscurusy tene- 

brosus {ppctcu9y p.) 
MyrkenessE) or dorkenesse 

Ahirkenes, k. thyrknesse, s. 

oerkenesBe, ?•) Tenebrositasy 

ohacurtiasy tenebre. 
Myrthe. Leticia, jocunditasy 

Myrowrb, or inyrowre glasse. 

Mysawnter, or nyscheye (mis- 

aventure, K. p. myschefe, s.) 

Infortunium, dirfortunium. 

Myschapyn* yn kynde. Mon^ 

Myschape thynge yn kynde. 
MofutruosuSy monstrum. 

Myschawnce, idem quod my- 
sawnter (or myBchefe, s. p.) 

Mysel, or mescd, or lepre. Le- 

Myselrye, or lepre. Lepra. 

Myschap, uitfm ^t«o^ myschaunce 
(or mysawnter, ^ujoro, or on- 
hap, infra; mishef, k. myschef, 
H. myshap, s.) 

Myshappy, orvnhappy. Infor- 
tunatusy disfbrtunatus. 

Myse, or mysys.' Micey in plur. 

1 Merry is not infrequently used by the old writers in the sense of pleasant. Ang.- 
Sax. myrig, Juctmdtu. In the version of Vegedas, attributed to Trevisa, Roy. MS. 18 
A. XII. it is observed that wise warriors in olden times used to ** occupie theire foot 
menne in dedes of annes in the felde in mery wedire, and vndre roof in housing in 
fowle wedre.*' B. iii. c. 2. Again, precaution is recommended at sea against unsettled 
weather, and the diversity of places, " the whiche maketh ofte of mery wedre grete 
tempestes, and of grete tempestes mery weder and clere." B. iv. c. 38. The arms 
borne by the name of Merewether are to be classed with the armoiries parlantes ; 
namely. Or, three martlets sable, on a chief azure a sun in splen4our ; die martlet 
being, as it was supposed, an omen of fair weather. 

s This word occurs in Brunne*s version of Langtoft, p. 176 ; Chaucer's Rom. of R. 
V. 5339 ; the Vis. of Piers Ploughman ; Awntyrsof Arthure, 68; Towneley Myst. p. 167. 
In a description of hell, in Add. MS. 10,053, p. 136, the following passage occurs : 

*' Synne slial to endeles payne the lede 
In helle, that is hidous and merke. — 
Ther is stynk, and smoke a-mong, 
And merkenesse, more than euer was here.*' 

" Mirke, uter^ caliginosw, futcna, obtcurw, umbi'Otut, A mirknes, abludnaciOf i, 
lueis alienaciOt chaosy &c. To make or to be mirke, tenebrare, niffrere,^* oath. ang. 
'* Myrke, 6r darke, brun, obseur, I myrke, I darke, or make darke (Lydgat), le 
obscureys," palso. See Brockett, Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. Ang.-Sax. mire, 
tenebriB. See therkk, hereafter. 

s This term apparently denotes crumbs or grated particles of bread, called in French 
mi€9, or mioches, ** Mica^ reliqnie panU^ vel quod cadit de pane dum franffitur ei 
eomeditWy 8fc. a crome of brcde.*' ortus. In the Book of Cookery, written 1381, 
and printed by Pegge with the Forme of Cury, it is directed to take onions, '* and 
myce hem rijt smal,** as also to *' myse bred," &c. pp. 93, 95. The participle ** myyd '* 
occurs in Sloane MS. 1986, f. 85, and other passages, and signifies grated bread, 
which, as it has been observed in the note on the verb gbatb, p. 307, was much used 
in andent cookery. 

Digitized by 




Myssyn, as eyne for dymnesse 

(as eyen, h. iyen, p.) Caligo. 
Myssyn, or wantyn. Careo, cath. 
Myst, or rooke (roke, k, h. s, p.) 

Nubilumy c. F. nebula, cath. 

utrumque UG. in nubo. 
Mystery, or prevyte. Misterium. 
(Mysterynge, or musterynge, 

infra in romelynge.) 
Mysty, or prevey to rnannys 

wytte. Misticui. 
Mysty, or rooky, as the eyre 

(roky, K. H, s.) Nebuloius, 

MYSTY(N),or grow roky as wedur, 

and mysty. OhnuhUo. 
Mysterb, or nede (mistyr, p.)' 

Indigencia, opus* 
Mystlyone, supra in mestlyone. 

Bigermen, UG. tn bis, mixtilio. 
Mysvsyn. Abutor, ug. in utor. 
Mynute (myte, k. harl. ms. 

2274, P.)^ Minutum. 
MYTEYNE(or cuffe, glove, supra^y 

1 *' A mister, ubi a nede. A nede, neeeuiias, necetse, opus,** &c. catu. ano. 
Roquefort gives the following explanation of the French word, whence this appears to 
be taken : " Mester, mestier: betoin, n^cet^olre," &c. Chaucer uses the word '* mis- 
tere,** signifying need, as of daily food, in the comparison between the wealthy miser 
and the poor man ; R. of Rose, t. 5614 ; and again, in the sense of requiring the ser- 
vices of any one ; see the address of Love to False Semblant, ib. t. 6078. $ee 
Towneley Myst pp. 90, 234, and Jamieson, v. Mister. 

« The position of Uiis word in the alphabetical arrangement would indicate that the 
reading of the Cambridge MS. is here to be preferred. Mynute was, howerer, used 
synonymously with mite, as appears by the passage in the Widiffite version, Mark zii. 
42, quoted in the note on cu, halfe a rarthynge, p. 106. Gouldman gives ** a minute, 
or q. which is half a farthing, minutum,** It is said in the Ortus, ** minutum est 
quo4dam genus pondsris, scilicet media pars quadrantis ;** and a distinction appears to 
be made in the following citation: '* A myte, mita: a myte, quod est powius, mi' 
nutum,** CATH. ANO. Palsgrave gives '*myte, the leest coyne that iM,pite/* which 
was a little piece struck at Poitiers, Pictavina, and of the value of half an oboiei and 
Sherwood renders *< Mite (the smallest of weights, or of coine) Minute; aussi, vne 
petite piece de monnoye non vsitie.** There is no evidence that any coin of such value 
was ever struck in England, but small foreign pieces may have been circulated, such as 
the Poitevine, or the *' dyner of Genoa,'* which also, according to R. Holme, was 
worth half a farthing. Ac^. of Arm. B. iii. c. 30. Roquefort explains mite as sig- 
nifying a Flemish copper coin ; but, according to Ducange, the value of the Flemish mita 
was four oboli. It is, however, possible that fractional parts of the silver penny or fiEUthing 
might occasionally pass as mites : thus entries frequently occur in the Accounts of the 
Keeper of St. Cuthbert's Shrine, during the XVth cent, as cited by Raine, respecting 
**Jracta peeunia ;** and the petition of the Commons in 1444, 23 Hen. VI. complains 
of the great injury that arose from the division of coin, for want of small currency, and 
craves that the breaking of white money be forbidden under a heavy penalty. Rot. Pari* 
V. 109. 

9 ** Mita est pUum frigium, or a myttane. Mantus, a myteyn, or a mantell." 
ORTU8. " A mytane, mitta, mitana.** cath. ang. In the curious dictionary of 
John de Garlandift it is said diat '* eirothecarii deeipiunt seolares Parisius (sic) ven^ 
dendo eirotheeas simplices, et furratas pellibus agninis, cuniculinis, tmlpinie, et mictas 
de corio/actas.*' llie following explanation is given in the gloss : *' AhtoMf Gallice 
mitanes (mitheines, al,) a mitos, quod estjilum, quia prima fiebant defilo vel de panno 
laneo, et adhucfiunt a vulgo,** MS. Bibl. Rothom. It is said in the Catholicon that 
** a manus dicitur mantus, quia manus tegat tantum, est enim brevis atmctus," &c. 

Digitized by 




2mUay Dice. mancHSi cath. et 

c. p. 
TMyhth, h. might, p. Fartitudo.) 
(Myhthy, h. mighty, p. Fortis^ 

potensy vigorosus.) 
(Mythyly, h. Fortiter,) 
MYTRE(or mytir, p.) MUrOy tianu 
Mytryd. mitratus. 
Mytryn. Mitro* 
MoDY, or angry, supra in A. 
MoDYFYYN, or settyii yn mene 

cowrse of resone (settyn in cure 

or reason, p.)^ dfodifico* 
MoDER, seryaunte, or wenche 

(moddyr, s,y Carisioy cath. 
MooDER, forthe hryngere. Mater y 



MoDERLES chylde. PupUluSy pu- 

MoDYR Q WELL A RE (modyrsleere, 

K.) Matricida. 

MoDYR WORTE, herbo (or mug- 

worte, infra.) Ariemesia. 
MoYST. ffunUdus. 
MoYSTYN, or make moyste. JJti- 

MoYSTURE. Humor, 
MocKE, or mokke.^ Ca>chin(n)a. 
MocKE, or skome. Valgia, 
MoKKElondewythedonge. Fimoy 

Moke vynys. Pastmo, comm. 
MoKKYN, or iapyti, or tryfelyn. 

Liudificoy c. F. 
Moldale (molde ale, s.)^ Po- 

taciojunerosoy vel Juner(a)lisy 

uo. in Jos. 

the primary sense of this Latin term being a short garment or mantle. In the minute 
description of the garb of the Ploughman are mentioned his ** myteynes " made of 
cloutes, with the fingers '* for-werd,** or worn away ; see Creed of Piers P. t. 851. 
Amongst the feigned miraculous gifts whereby the Pardoner in the Cant. Tales states 
that he turned to account the credulity of his hearers, one was a mitaine : 

*' He that his hand wol put in this mitaine, 
He shal have multiplying of his graine.*' Cant. T. v. 13307. 

In 1392 Rich. Bridesall, merchant, of York, bequeaths " meum ntaffnum dowblet, et 
meum mytans de iVorrty et meum daffardum.** Test. £bor. i. p. 174. 

1 This verb is placed in the MSS. as likewise in the printed copies, between moor- 
DBKTN and MomTN. ** I modefye, I temperate, le me modj/ie, and le me trempe, 
What thoughe he speke a hastye worde, you muste modyfye your selfe." palsg. 

3 The term mauther has been recognised as peculiarly East-Anglian by Sir Thos. 
Browne, Spelman, Forby, and Moor. It is used by B. Jonson. Tusser, in his list 
of husbandly furniture, includes ** a sling for a mother (moether, a/, ed,) a bow for a 
boy," intended for driving away birds, as he advises, in September's husbandry, to set 
<< mother or boy " to scare away pigeons and rooks from the newly-sown land, with 
loud cries, sling, or bow. " Puera, a woman chylde, callyd in Cambrydge shyre a 
modder. Pupa, a yonge wenche, a gyrle, a modder.'* bltot. ** Baquelette, a young 
wench, mother, girle. FUle, a maid, girle, modder, lasse," &c. goto. "A modder, 
Jllletie,Jeune garee, ganette.'* shbrw. '* A modder, wench or girl, puera, pupa,"" 
oouLDM. Compare palsb moddbe, or wenche, p. 148. Dan. moer, Belg. modde,p«e//a. 

> Possibly the correct reading should here be mockb, or mowe. See mow k, or skome. 

•* See the account of funeral entertainments in Brand's Popular Antiquities. Wine 
or ale sweetened and spiced was termed mulled, as Skinner supposes, from the Latin 

Digitized by 




MooLDARE of paste (moldare of 

bred, k. p.) Pistricusj pistrica, 

pistrioy CATH. VG.pistrixy uo. 
Mold, forme. Duca. 
MooLD, or soyle of ertbe. Solum^ 

MooLD for a belle, or a potte. 

Effigies^ KYLW. 
MooLDE breed. Pinso, cath. et 

UG. pistoy CATH. pistrioy cath. 

pindoy UG. V. 
MooLDYNGE of paste. Pisturay 

MoLLE. Talpa. 
MoLEYNE, berbe. Tapttusy c. f. 

harhascusyvel tapsus barbascus. 
MoLET, fysche. Mullusy c. F. et 

UG. in mollis. 
MoLOWRE, gryndynge stone (for 

colourys, K.) Moluy cath. et 

c. F. 
MoME, or awnte, supra in A. 

(faders suster.' Ameta, p.) 
(MoME, or aunte, moders syster, 

p. Materteroy cath.) 
MooNE, or momynge, idem quod 

waymentynge, injra in V. (or 

waylynge, infra; mome, s. 


MoNE, planete. Luna, phebes, 
velfebesy cath. et c. f. 

MoNG CORNE (supra in mestlyon, 
8.) Mixtilio. 


phanta, cath. c. f. et uo. 
Mo NY. Pecunioy moneta, pe* 

culiumy cath. 
MoNYMENT, or chartem, or o))er 

lyke. ~ Munimentum (monumeuy 

s. monumentumy p.) 
MoNYON, or m6nyn,or bry(n)ge to 

, mynde (monyynge, or moynynge, 

h. mouyn, p.) Commemoro. 
MoNYOWRE. Nummulariusy mo' 

netariust c. f. erarius. 
Monythe. Mensis. 
MoppE, or popyne.3 PupOy pusio. 
Moore, or maryce. mariscus. 
More of the fenne. Palustrumy 

MooRD(E)RARE(morederar, k.p.) 

Sicariusy cath. et c. f. 
MoRDERYD. Sicariatus. 
MooRDERYN, or prively kyllyn. 

MooRDERYNGE. Sicariacioy si' 

cariatusy c. e. 
More, Plus. 

moUitum ; but more probably from the mulled or powdered condiments essential to the 
concoction. Compare mullyn, or breke to powder. " Molle, jMifeer," 8^c. cath. 
ANO. Island, mil, in minuttu partes iundo ; pr<ster. mulde. 

1 MoNE, MS. Compare Teut. moeme, Germ, muhme, matertera, 
s ** 8icho/(mta,i./al8us calumniator, velviliumrerum appetitor.*^ cath. "Maunche 
present, brijfavlt, I manche, I eate gredylye. Are you nat ashamed to manche (briffer) 
your meate thus lyke a carter ? I monche, I eate meate gredyly in a comer, ie hppine^** 
&c. PALS6. Bp. Kennett gives ** to munge, to eat greedily ; Wilts.*' Lansd. MS. 
1033. *' A manch-present, dorophagus*^ gouldm. " Brifautf a hasty deyourer, a 
fast eater, a ravenous feeder, a greedy glutton.'* goto. 

3 MoppE signifies here a child's doll, formed of rags, as poptn is explained here- 
after to be a ** chylde of clowtys." Nares gives it as a term of endearment to a girl, 
as moppet is used in Suffolk, according to Moor. ** A little mopse, puellula,'* 
GOULDM. In the Sevyn Sages, v. 1414, &e foolish burgess who went from bis home 
to seek a wife is said to have gone forth '' as a moppe wild,** where the word is ex- 
plained by Weber as signifying a fool. 

Digitized by 



More, yn quantyte.^ Major. 
More, in qualyte. Magia. 
Moreyn, of pestylens. Mortali' 

tdSy pesHlencich pestis. 
Morel, herbe. Morella, sola' 

trum^ vel herba Sancte Marie. 
Morel, horse.^ Morellus. 
MoRFU, sekenesse. Morphea^ 
MoRYN, or make more (mooryn, 

H.) Major o. 

MoRTN, and largyn (moryn, or 

makyn more large, k.) Amplio^ 

Moryn, or yncresyn.* Augeoy 

CATH. adaugeo. 
MoRYVE (morryve, s.)^ Dos. 
MoRKYN (or merkyd, supra; 

morkinge, p.) Signatus. 
MoRMAL, sekenesse.^ Malum 


^ This comparatiye frequently signifies large dimension, and not number. Thus in 
Kyng Alis. y. 6529» the rninoceros is described as ** more than an olifaunt ;" and in 
the Wicliffite yersion it is used to express superior, by priority of birth ; where it is 
said that Isaac knew not Jacob, *' for )>e heery hondis expressiden )>e licnesse of ]fe 
more son." Gen. xxvii. 23. In the Version of Yegedns, Roy. MS. XVIII. A. 12, the 
heayy-armed troops are said to have had two kinds of darts, ** one of the more assise, 
the other of thelasse ; " the '* pile,** which measured 5i feet in length, and the '* broche,'* 
which was shorter by two feet So likewise in the Golden Legend the '* moreletanye,'* 
on St. Mark's day, is distinguished from the ** less letanye, iij. days to fore the As- 
cension.** It is occasionally retained in names of places, as More Critchill, Dorset, 
probably so called by way of distinction from Long CritchiU, and other neighbouring 
hamlets. The rebus, or canting device of the Mortons of Bushbury, Herefordshire, 
repeatedly used amongst the ornaments of the chantry founded by one of that family on 
the south side of the church, is a tun inscribed with the initial of his Christian name, 
the syllable Mor being, as it would seem, expressed by the supposed dimension of the 
tun, or its proportion to the scutcheon whereon it is placed. 

* Mortlhu IS explained by Ducange as meaning sulffliieut ; so likewise Roquefort 
gives ** morel; fiotr, tann^, tirant $ur U brun,*' According to Cotgrave eheval morel 
is a black horse. In the Towneley Mjrsteries, p. 9, " Morelle ** occurs as the name of 
one of the horses yoked to Cain's plough. 

s Gower describes the glowing blush which restored beauty to the features of Lucreoe, 

on meeting her husband, *' so that it myght not be mored." Conf. Am. vii. In the 

curious metrical version of the most ancient grants to St. Edmund's Bury, preserved 

in Uie Register of Abbot Curteys, the following lines occur in the Charter of Canute : 

" Bexample of whom (St. Edmund) I Knut am gretly mevyd. 

To the holy martyr I wyl that al men se. 

That his chirche be fraunchised and relevvd, 

Moryd and encresyd as fer as lyth In me/' 
Herman, amongst the passages from Terence, gives the following: **He dredith lest 
thy olde angyr or hardnes be mored or incresyd." 

* Compare Ang.-Sax. morsan-sifu, dos wuptialU. In La^amon ** moneue " occurs 
in this sense, ed. Madden, iii. 249, and '' moerjeue " ii. 175, which is in Wace's original 
** douaire/* See Hickes, Thes. L p. ix. Pref. and Wachter, v, Morgengabe. 

* Chaucer, in the Prologue to Cant. T. v. 388, describes the Cook as afflicted with 
« a mormal,'* or gangrene on his shin, called in Latin tiuUum mortuum, and in old 
French mausmori. Remedies for the mortmal may be found in Arund. MS. 42, 
/. 105, vo; and in Sloane MS. 100, f. 58, v**, a compound is described of litharge of 
gold, oil of roses, white wine, old urine, &c. which formed *'a piastre >at WUliam 
Faryngdoun knyjt lete a sqnyer t^at was his prisoner go quyt of his raonsum fore. This 


Digitized by 




MooRNYN, and sorowyn. Mereoy 

g$mOy CATH. 

M ooRNYNOE,or sorwytige, JfijroT, 
luctusy gemittis. 

MoRNYNGE, or morwenynge (mor- 
wyn, K. H. morwynge, s. mor- 
nynge, or morowe, p.) Maney 
auroroy diluculumy c. f. lu' 
canumy c. f. matutay cath. 
matutinum (matutinoy v») 

MoROw SPECHE (morwespeclie, 
K. H. morspech, s.)^ Crcutinum 

MoRTAGONE, herbe. Herha 

MoRTEYS of a tenowne (morteys or 
tenon, p.) Gumphusy Dice, st 
KYLW. incastraturay kylw. 

MoRTER, vesselle of stampynge 
(champ3mge, s.) Mortariumy 
BRIT, mortarioluniy brit. 

MoRTBRE, for wallys makynge. 

MoRTER, for playsterynge (to 

playster with, k.) Lituray c. f. 

et CATH. in lino. 
MoRTRWYS, dyschmete (mor- 

trews, K. morterews, s.)^ Pe- 

ponumy apiloisy kylw. pepOy 

MoROW, idem quod momynge, 

supra (morwyn, k. morwe, h.)' 
Mo ROW sTERRE(morwyTi8tere,K.) 

Lucifer y cath. t» vesper* 
MossB, grow3mge a-mongys 

stonys. Muscusy cath. ug. in 

MoosLE, or mosul for a nette 

(mosle, or mosyl, s.) Oristri^ 

gium (promossidaestidemy s.) 
MooTE, of an home blowynge (mo^ 

K.)^ ComatuSyclassicumyCATU. 

piastre wole hele a mormal, and cancre, and festre, and alle o)>ere sooris." Caxton says, 
in the Book for Travellers, ** Maximian the maistre of phisike can hele dropesye, blody 
flyxe, tesyke, mormale {mormal,)** ** Mormall, (or marmoU,) a sore, /oop." palsg. 
1 This term denoted a periodical assembly of a gild : A. -Sax. moreen -spsBC. See 
Hickes, Thes. ii. 21, i., iz., and extracts (rom Registers of gilds at Lynn, Richards' 
Hist. pp. 422, 477. 

s ** Mortrewes'* occur amongst the dishes mentioned by Chancer in the account of 
the Cook's abilities ; Cant. T. Prol. y. 386. ** Mortrws, pepOf peponum.** cath. ano. 
** Pepo, I. melo, mortrews, et est rimilis cucurbiie," orttjs. Mortrews, according to 
yarioos recipes given in Harl. MS. 279 ; Cott. MS. JaL D. viii. and Sloane MS. 1986, 
seems to have been fish, or white meat ground small, and mixed with crumbs, rice flour, 
&c. See in the last mentioned compilation *' mortrews de chare, blanchyd mortrews, and 
mortrews of fysshe,*' pp. 55, 60, 66, given under the head de potagiU, The term is 
frequently written ** morterel, mortrewys," &c. and is possibly derived from the mode 
of preparation, by braying the flesh in a morter. '* Mortesse meate." palbo. 

s Many instances might be dted of the use of the word morrow, signifying the 
morning, as Chaucer uses it, when he says of the Frankelein, '* wel loved he by the 
morwe a sop in win." Cant. T. 335. Sir John Maundevile speaks of the idola^T' of 
the natives of Chana, who worshipped a serpent, or whatever animal ** that thei meten 
first at morwe." In the Version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. XYIII. A. 12, it is said that 
it is requisite to ascertain the custom of the enemy, *' if they be wonede to assaile or 
falle vpone the nyghte, or in the morow." B. iii. c. 6. In the curious translation of 
Macer's treatise on the virtues of plants, MS. in the possession of Hugh Diamond, Esq. 
it is observed that " he bat eti|> caule (brasHea) first at morwe, vnnethe shal he fynde 
drunkenesse >at day." The day-star likewise is called the morow btbrrb. In the 
Golden Legend it is said of the Assumption of our Lady that an angel brought her ** a 
bowe of palme, whose leues shone lyke to the morowe sterre." 
^ This term is taken from the French moty which is explained by Nicot to imply 

Digitized by 




MooTE, dyke, watyr closynge a 
place (motdyke, or watyr place 
closyd, K. dyche or water, 
P.) drcumfossatutny fossiUumy 

COMM. mot€h KTLW. 

Mot A RE, or pletareJ Ducsptovy 
vel disceptaioTy pkieitator. 

Moots yn )>e sunne ^or qhere it 
be, H. where it be, p.) Atthomusy 
(JestuccLy p.) 

MoOTE HALLE.Prtftorttiin,CATH. 

MoTHE WOKE, neyder to nesche, 
ne to harde (moothewyc, or 
mothwoc, ne)>er to neyscb, ne to 
hard, h. motewoke, s. mothwyc, 
or mothwoc, p.)* Dimollis. 

MooTYN, or tolyon (motyn, or 

pletyn, p.) Disceptoy placito. 
MoTYNGE, or tolyynge, or pleyt- 

ynge. Disceptado, pkuntacio. 
MoTLE, colowre, Stromaticusy 

CATH. (mixturoy p.) 
MoTONE, flesche. Ovillay moto 

(muUoy K.) 
Mow, husbondys syster, or wyfys 

systyr, or syster in lawe.* 

Glo$y c. F. 
Mo WARE wythe a sythe. Fal' 

catoTy metellus yCATH, falcariusy 


Mo WARE, or makere of a mowe 
(and scorn, k. makar of mowys 
and scomys, h. p.)^ Valgiator 
(cachinncUovy p.) 

**le»ondela trompe tPun Feneur, »onn4 d'art ei nutUtrUeJ* See Twetj, Yesp. B. xii. 
f. 4 ; R. Holme, Acad, of Arm. iii. p. 76. Horman says that " blowyng of certain and 
diners motis, and watchis, gydeth an host, and saneth it from many parelljrs* The trom- 
pettonrs blowe a fytte or a mote {dant ela$$ieum).** " Mote, blast of a home.*' palsg. 

1 « To mute, allegare, ui Hie allegat pro me; eautartf eontravertari, deeertare, pla^ 
eitare. A mute halle, eapitoUmm. A muter, actor, advoeatuB, eautidiem, &c. 
Mntynge, cotiM, pragma,''* oath. ano. '' Mote or encheson, catua, eawale, litu 
gium,^* Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1587. '' Catua, a cause or motynge. Catuarius, a 
pledere, a motere. Causor, to plede or mote." mbd. " CertiUHen, t. pugna vel liti" 
giuMy a chydynge or motynge. Controvertor, to mote, plede, or chyde.*' ortus. 
Ang.-Sax. mot, eonventtUf motian, to meet for the purpose of discussion, ditputare s 
mot-hus, or motS-heal, a place of meeting. In the poem on the evil times of Edw. II. 
Polit. Songs, p. 336, complaint is made of the corruption of Justices, and other legal 
authorities, who, instead of fair and open dealing, '^maken the mot-halle at hom in 
here chaumbre." In the Wicliffite version, John xviii. 38, pratorium is rendered 
« moot-halle.'* See also Vis. of Piers P. y. 2353. Compare plbb, of motynge. 

3 In the Winch. MS. rbeb is given hereafter as synonymous with mothb wokb. 
This appears to be a compound word, the last syllable of which may be derived from 
Ang.-Sax. w^, debUU, JUxibilU, whence wiU;-mod, punllanimis. The former syllable 
may possibly be taken from Ang.-Sax. mete, Isl. mot, moduM, Hence also ** methfnlle," 
moderate. See Jamieson, v, Meith. Compare lith-wake, or leothe-wok, supple 
limbed, according to the citations given in the note on the word lttb, p. 310. 

t Compare A.-S. maes, parent ^ used very widely to denote a relatiye, son, sister, niece, 
&c. See La^amon, i. pp. 13, 73, 162, Madden's ed. R. Brunne uses the word *' mouh." 

^ <* CocAtfiiior, to grenne, or for to make a mowe.'' mbd. " To mowe, eaehinnarey 
narire, et cetera ubi to scorne. A mowynge, cachinnatue^ rictus,** oatr. ano. 
'* Cackinno, to mowe, or skome with the mouth.*' ortub. " Mowe, a scorne, move, 
moe. Mower, skomer, moequevr, I moo, I mocke, I mowe with the mouthe, iefayt 
la moue,** falso. ** Moue, a moe, or mouth ; an ill-fiivoured extension, or thrusting 
out of the lips. MoUard, mumping, mowing, making months. Bayhage, a scomfuU 

Digitized by 




MowE, or skorne. Vangia, vel 

valgiay CATH. et c. f. (ca^ 

chinna, p.) 
MowE, byrd, or semewe. As- 

pergOy et alia infra in S. /t- 

M9WE wythe a sythe. Fako. 
MowYN, or make a mow. Valgioy 

cachinno (vangioy p.) 
Mo W5TE, clothe Wynne (mowhe, k. 

mow, s. mowghe, p.)* Tinea, 

MowLE, 8ore.2 Pustula {pemioj 


MowLYD, a(8) brede. Mussidus, 

vel mucidusy c. f. e^ cath. 
MowLYN, as bred.* Mucidatj 


MowLYNGE, of mowle (or mowle, 
s.) MucoTf c. F. mucidtts, c ath. 

Mown, or haue myjllte (niy3t, k. 
myth, H. mowne, p.)^ Possum. 

Mow NT, hylle. Mons, collis. 

moe, or moatb made." cotg. *'To mow, or mock with the mouth like an ape, dii- 
torquere o«, rtetum deducere,** oouldm. In the poem on the evil times of Edw. II. 
a carious picture is given of the " countonr," or barrister, who, pocketing the fee, 
ond speaking a few words to little purpose, as soon as he had turned his back, "he 
makketh the a mouwe.** Polit. Songs, p. 339. Such scornful gestures were deemed a 
great breach of good manners ; thus, in the Boke of Curtasye, the youth is instructed 
as to bis demeanour at table, where he should especially avoid quarreling, making 
'< mawes,*' and staffing the mouth vrith food. 

** Yf \>on make mawes on any wyse, 
A velany )>ou kacches or euer )>ou rise. — 
A napys mow men sayne he makes, 
hat brede and flesshe in hys cheke bakes." SloaneMS. 1986, f. 18, t«. 

So also in the like admonition, printed with the title, Stanspuer ad m«fwam, it is said, 
'' grenynge and mowynge at the table eschewe." 

* ** Mought that eateth clothes, uers de drap,** palso. Ang.-Sax. mo^^, tinea. 

* In Arund. MS. 42, numerous remedies are given for mowles. ** Plemina sunt 
ulcera in tnanihus et in pedibus callotiSi weles or mowles." M bd. ** A mowle, pernio.^ 
CATH. ANG. This term is taken from the French ; •* Kybe on the hele, mti/e.** palso. 
W. Turner, in his Herbal, 1563, speaks of kibes or " mooles," and says that the 
broth of rape is good for ** kybed, or moolde heles.'* Gerard states that ** the downe of 
the reed mace, or cats tail, hiath been proved to heale kibed, or humbled heeles (as 
they are termed) either before or after the skin is broken." And. Boorde, in the Bre- 
viary of Health, c. 272, treats at length of the causes and remedies for such ailments. 
See Jamieson, 9. Mule. 

s *'To mowle, mucidare. Mowled, mucidus. Mowlenes, ffUSj mucotf mussa,** 
CATH. ANO. *'iftf cor, to mowle as bredde.'' ortub. Palsgrave gives the verb ''I 
mowlde, or fiist, as come or breed dothe, le moisiSf'* but the word is usually written, 
according to the ancient spelling, as given in the Promptorium. Chaucer speaks of 
" mouled,'* or grey hairs. In the relation of a miraculous occurrence given in the 
Golden Legend, f. 65, v<*, it is said, ** as the kynge sate at mete, all the brede waxed 
anone mowly, and hoor, y' no man myght ete of it.*' Kilian gives ** molen, vetus 
Ffandr. cariem contrahere,** Compare Dan. mulner, to grow mouldy ; mulen, hoary 
or mouldy. 

** ** To mughe, posset valere, queo. To nott moghe, nequire, fion posse,*^ oath. ang. 
The verb to mow, to be able, is used by R. Glouc. p. 39, and Chaucer. In the Golden 
Legend it is said of the last judgment that ** the eyghte sygne shall be y« general! 

Digitized by 




MowNTENAWNCE (mownteiiesse, 
s.) Estimata quantitas (vel 
esHmata mensura, aut quanti- 
tas rei, p.) 

MowNTYNGE, Of steynyDge (nc, 
stjrynge, s.) Ascensus. 

MowsE, beste. Mus. 

Mows A RE, as a catte. Musceps. 

MowsEER, herbe. Muricula (au- 
ricalu murisy k. p.) 

MowsFALLE (or trap, k. p. or 
falle, suprcuy Muscipula, 

MowsYN, or take myse. Muri- 

MowsYN, or priyely stodyyn 
(stond3ni a dowt, k. stodyn a 
dowte, H. musen, or stodien a 
doughty p.) Musoy mussoy cath. 

MowTARE, or mowtard, byrde,' 

Plutor, CATH. (plutusy P.) 

MowTHE of awesselle. Orificiumf 

c. F. 
MowTHE of a botelle. Lura, c. f. 
Mow TYDJDeplumatu»(^pltUus,FJ) 
MowTYN*, as fowlys. Plumeoy 

CATH. uo. V. deplumeoy uo. v. 
MowTYNOE, Deplumacioy plu^ 

Mv, of hawkys.* Falconariunu 
Mud, or grutte. Limus. 
MuGLARD, or nyggarde (or 

P3mchar, infra^ Tenax, ava'- 

rus, cupidi(n)ariusy c. f. 
MuGWORTB, herbe, idem quod 

moder worte, supra.^ 

tremblynge of the ertbe, whiche shall be so grete that noo man ne beest shall not 
mowe stonde tbereon, but fall to the grownde.'* Caxton states, in the Book for Tra« 
Tellers, that his intent was ** to ordeyne this book, by the whiche men shall mowe 
resonably nnderstande Frenssh and English, on pourra entendre,'* &e. The verb 
NOWTHE MOWN occoTS hereafter. Compare Dutch moghen, Germ, moegen, posee. 

^ Compare vallb, p. 147. ** Paciscolia, t. mtueipula, a mowse falle.*' Msn. MS. 
CANT. In the Shepherd's Calendar it is said that ** the conetons man is taken in the 
nette of the deuil, by the which he leseth euerlasting lyfe for small temporal goodes, — 
as the moose is taken in a fall, or trappe (d la ratth^y orig.) and leseth his lyfe for a 
lyttle bacon.*' Ed. J. Wally, sign. F. j. v^'. Ang.-Sax. mus-fealle, mutcipnla, 

* '*Mowter, vide moolter, — quando avium pemuB decidunt,*' oouldm. To mnte or 
moult, to change the feathers, is taken from the Latin. Palsgrave giTes the Terb to 
*' mute, as ahauke or birde dothe his fethers, muer;** which is rendered by Cotgraye 
'* to mue, to cast the head, coat, or skin." See Dncange, v, Muta, Hence the place 
where hawks were kept during the change of plumage was termed a mew ; and mutare 
signified to keep them in a mew, as in a document dated 1425, edited by Bp. Kennett, 
Par. Antiqu. 

* Compare mwb, or cowle, a coop for keeping or fatting poultry, p. 350. 

* Muggard, in the Exmoor Dialect, signifies sullen and morose. In the sense of 
ayaricious mugla&d may be derived from the French *' mugotter, to hoord ; muffot, 
a hoord, or secret heap oif treasure.*' goto. 

^ The virtues of mugwort, Artemisia vulgarie, Linn, are highly extolled by the 
ancient herbalists. The following observation occurs in Arund. MS. 4S, f. 35, v^. 
" Mogwort, al on as seyn some, modirwort : lewed folk >at in manye wordes conne no 
ry^t sownynge, but ofte shortyn wordys, and changyn lettrys and silablys, )>ey comptyn 
^ o. in to u. and d. in to g. and syncopyn i. smytyn a-wey i. and r. and seyn mug- 
wort." ** Mugworte, arthemieia, t. mater herbarum,'* cath. ano. Ang.-Saz. mus- 
wyrt, artemieia. Of the superstitious custom of seeking under the root of this plant 
for a coal, to serve as a talisman against many disasterB, see Brand's Pop. Antiqu* 

Digitized by 




MuKKE. FimtUy Utamet^ cath. 

MuKHTLLE, or doDghjlle. Stev' 

quiUniumy Jimariumy foricay 


MuK, or doste (mul, k. s. mull, 
p.)» Puhm. 


MuLBERT, tre. Morusy cath. 
MuLLYN, or breke to powder, or 

mulle (muld3ni, s.)* Pulverito. 
MuLLYN, or reynyn a mulreyne* 

Plutmaty c. F. 

MULREYNE.^ PlutinOy C. F. pith' 
violOy CATH. 

giuLLOURE, ^/>ra in molowre,p.) 

MuLTYTUDE, of gTete nowmbyr. 

MuL WELLE, fyssbe.^ MuUoy c. F. 


MuMMYN, as )>ey )»at 11051 speke. 
Mutioy CATH. et c. F. et uo. m 





MuNKE. Moncuihus. 
MuRCHE, lytyll man.^ Nanusy vel 

navuiy c. F. sessilluiy cath. Ao- 

mullusy homundo. 
MussELLE (sic, K. murssell, p.) 

Morcellusy bolusy buceUa. 
MuscHYL,ormu8kyl,fysche (mus- 

dhell, K.) Musculusy c. f. 

1 The correct reading U here giyen, probably, by the other MSS. The term miiU is 
■till retained in the Eastern counties, and in Uie North, and signifies, according to 
Forby, soft brealdng soil. '* Molle, jm/Mr, et cetera ubi powder." cath. ano. 
Compare Low-Germ* and Datch, mnl, Ang.-Saz. myl, pulvie, " Mullock, or 
moUock, vide dust, or dung." oouldm. Chancer uses the word '* mullok," Cant. T. 
T. 3871, 16,408. See the North Country Glossaries. 

* "To mulbrede, mterere, mkare. To make molle, jmheriMore.*^ cath. ano. 
Hence, perhaps, as it has been suggested in the note on mold alb, p. 341, to mull ale or 
wine, to infuse powdered condiments therein. 

s Pultina, ms. The term mulkbtnb may haye been not inappropriately used to 
denote a mizzling shower, falling like fine powder, or mull ; unless it may be preferred 
to seek a derivation from the French mtmiller. 

4 In the Inventory of Sir John Fastolfs effects at Caistor, 1459, is the entry 
** Larderia: Item, vig. lynges. Item, iiij. mulwellfyche. Item, j. barelle dim' alee* 
aib\** Archsol. zzi. S78. Dr. Will. Turner, in his letter to Gesner on British fish, 
prefixed to the second ed. of Gesner, lib. It. states that the fish called keling In the 
North, and cod in the South, on the Western coasts is termed melwel. Spelman states 
that tiie muheihu of the Northern seas is the green fish, called in the Book of Customs 
at Lynn Regis meWel, and haddock, and in Lancashire milwyn. In the statute for the 
regulation of prices offish and poul^, as given in Strype's Stowe, muWel is mentioned. 
** Moruef the cod, or green fish, a lease and dull-eyed kind whereof is called by some 
the morhwelL" coto. Merlangue virene, cuv. 

* Mummynge seems to have denoted originally a dumb show, a pantomime, per- 
formed by masked actors, a Christmas diversion, regarding which many particulars will 
be found in Brand's Pop. Antiq. ** Mummar, mowtmeffr. I mumme in a mummynge. 
Let vs go mumme {mvmmer) to nyght in womens apparayle.** palso. Compare 
Dutch mumme, Genu, momme, larva; Fr. **momme; wuuearade, dA^uieement.^' 
KoatTBT. ** Afommon, a troop of mummers ; also, a visard, or mask ; also, a set, by 
a mummer, at dice.** goto. 

* This name for a dwarf does not appear to be retained in any of the local dialects, 
although preserved, as it would appear, in the surname Murchison. 

Digitized by 




MuscHBRoM, toodys hatte, Bo^ 
letusy c. v.JunguSf c. f. 

MusTK. Muticcu 

MusKE. Muscatum. 

(MusKTL, fysche, or muscbyl, 

MusKYTTE, byrde.' Capu$y c. f. 

Must, drynke.^ Mustunh mulsumf 


MusTARDE. Sinapium. 
Mustard, or warlok, or 8e(n)- 

yyne, herbe (mustard syd, k. 

sede, p. senwyn, s.) Svnapia. 
Mustard potte, Ceriola, kylw. 

MusTERYN, or gadyr to-gedur. 
Commomtroj coaduno. 

Must(e)ryn, or qwy8p(e)ryn pri- 
vyly (or rummuelon, infra ^ 
whyspryn, h.) Mtusito, 

MusTBRYKOE, or qwysperynge 
(or romelynge, infra ; whisper- 
ynge, k. p.) Mussitacio. 

MusTERYNOB, or gaderynge to- 
ffeder of^men to be scbewyde 
(gaderynge togeder of sowd- 
yours, K. p.) Coadunacio^ 

MusTUR, idem est; et hellicrepa^ 

> '* A moskett, eaput,^ oath. amo. " Musket, a lytell hanke, mouchet.'* palbo. 
** Mauchet, etpeee tToiteau de proye, e*99t U HerceM de Vupervier,** nicot. The 
moiit ancient names of fire-arms and artillery being derived either firom monsters, as 
dragons or serpents, or from birds of prey, in allusion to velocity of movement, this 
little hawk supplied the appeUation musket ; as also at a mudi earlier period it had 
furnished a name for the missile termed muMchetta^ or mouehette, in the Xlllth cent. 

* " Must, careman, muttvm,'* oath. ano. '* Mtutaehim, t. muitum vimtm, vei 
potut {qui) ex musiojlt, et alH$ potUmibueJ*^ osTVg. MuUa, or muliue, according to 
the CathoUcon, was a drink compounded of wine, or water, and honey, commonly 
called meed ; occasionally the term denotes new wine, which is the usual signification 
of must, as in the Wicliffite version, Dedis ii. 13 ; Gov. Myst. p. 383. <* Must, newe 
wyne, mwet.** palso. In ^Ifric's Glossary, Julius, A. ii. f. 187, are given '* cerviea^ 
vel celea, eale ; medOt meodu ; ydromelium, vel tHulntm, beor." Horman says, ** We 
shall drynke methe, or metheglin ; mulium vel kydramel, non medonem,** According 
to the account given of Apomel, in Arund. MS. 42, f. 33, v^', muUa, or mellicraiium, 
is formed of eight parts water, and one of honey, boiled together; " idromellum, as 
o)>er focultes vsen it ; it is a lycur >at we callen wort, and it is seyd of ydor, water, and 
of hony, no^t |>at hony go> ^ to, for hony towche> it but for it is swete as hony. It 
is water of madt, mtii!fttm.'* 

> Previously to the existence of a standing stipendiary force, provision was made for 
the defence of the realm, in any sudden emergency, by the law that every householder 
should have in his dwelling a warlike equipment suitable to his means and station, 
and should at certain fixed seasons present himself before the constables, or appointed 
officers, with his accoutrements, for inspection. This was termed the monatre, moii- 
etruntf or armihutriumf in N. Britain the ** weapon-schawynge,*' often mentioned in 
the Scotch acts, and in later times in England, the muster. The most curious and ancient 
ordinance to this effect is that passed at Winchester, 1285, 13 Edw. I. Stat, of Realm, 
L 97 ; but the existence of a similar scrutiny at an earlier period appears by the docu- 
ments printed by Wats, M. Paris, Auctarium, addit. p. 230. Spelman cites Rot. Pari. 
5 Hen. IT. regarding the momtrum or monetratio of men-at-arms ; see also Uie ordi- 
nance of Hen. y. in his statutes in time of war, ** de nwnetrie publicis, seu oetenei' 
onibus.** Upton. Mil. Off. 136. *' Muster of men, bellicrepa,*' oath. ano. Palsgrave 
gives the verbs ** I muster, as men4o y' shall go to a felde, •> memonttre, I muster, 
I take the muster of men, as a capytayne doth, ie fai$ lee monetree. What place will 
you sygne to muster your folket in. Mostre of haraest men, numetre*^ 

Digitized by 




MwE, or cowle (mv, k.)* Sagi- 
narium. Dice. 

Nacyone. Nacio. 

Nacorne, ynstniment of myn- 
stralsye (nacome of mynstralle, 
K.)2 Nahulum (mdblum^ p.) 

Nacornere. Nahularius. 

Naoge, or lytylle beest, JBestuloy 

Nay. Non, 

Nayl of metalle. Clavut, 
Nayle of tyrabyr. Ctwilla, c. f. 
Nayl of fyngyr, or too. Uh- 

Naylyd wythe yryne. C(J)ava' 

tusy conclava4us. 
Naylyd wythe tymbyr. Cavil- 

Naylyd, as fyngers, or toos (nay- 
led on fyngers, p.) UngucUus. 

1 ^^t^tfiortum, MS. The distmction between my of hawkys, p. 34 7, and a mew for fatting 
poultry, deserves notice. Chaucer uses the word in the latter sense, Cant. T. 351. 

* This iostrument of martial music appears to have been a sort of drum, of Oriental 
origin, and introduced into Europe by Uie Crusaders. Joinville speaks of the minstrels 
of the Soudan, ** qui avoient eon Sarrazinnoit, et iabours, et nacairea;*^ the term 
being evidently identical with the naqftrab, or drum of the Arabs and Moors*. See 
Dncange, v, Nacara, Roquefort, and Wachter. Menage, and other writers, supposed 
the naeaire to be a kind of wind-instrument, but the observations of Ducange on Join- 
ville, p. 59, and the remarks of Daniel, Milice Franc, i. p. 536, prove beyond question 
that it was a drum. Cotgrave, however, gives ** Naquaire, a lowd instrument of 
musicke, somewhat resembling a hoboy.** Nakerys are mentioned in Gawayn and 
the Grene Kny^ht, v. 118, 1016 ; and Chaucer's Knight's T. v. S513. Froissart re- 
lates that Hugh Despenser the younger, being taken by the Queen's army in 1326, was 
led about " apr^ le route de la Royne, par touies let villee ou il» paeaoyentf h trompet 
et naeairee* Vol. i. c. xiiL Amongst the minstrels in the household of Edw. III. 
1344, is named *' makerers, j." which may be erroneously written for nakerer, but in 
the Gesta Ludov. VII. c. 8, it is said ** tympanie et macariis, et aim eimilibue inetru' 
mentis retonabant,'* See Household Ordin. p. 4, Harl. MS. 782, p. 63. Sir John 
Maundevile relates that near the River Phison is the Vale perilous, in which ** heren men 
often tyme grete tempestes — and gret noyse, as it were sown of tabours, and of nakeres, 
and trompes, as thoughe it were a gret feste." Volage, p. 340. Trevisa, in his version 
of Barthol. de Propr. lib. xix. c. 141, says that ** Armenia Rithmica is a sownynge 
melody — and diners instrumentes seme to this maner armony, as tabour, and timbre, 
harpe, and sawtry, and nakyres." PaUgrave gives ** nauquayre, a kynde of instrument, 
naquair,^* The precise period when the use of drums as martial music was adopted by 
the English is uncertain ; R. Glouc. p. 396, aUudes to their Saracenic origin, and 
describes the terror caused thereby, so that the horses of the Christians were " al 
astoned." Nakers were used at the battle of Halidown-Hill, 1332, as appears by the 
" Romance," or ballad on that victory, Harl. MS. 4690, f. 80 ; they are termed tabers 
in the prose account of the same, f. 79, v°. Minot says, in his poem on the alliance of 
Edw. III. with the Duke of Brabant, and other foreign powers, 1336, and their pre- 
parations for war with Philip de Valois, 

'* The princes, that war riche on raw, 
Gert nakers strike, and trumpes bUw." 

The NACORNB, or naeaire, was probably the small kettle-drum, used in pairs, as seen 
in the figures given by Strutt, norda, vol. 1. pi. vL from the Liber Regalia, written 
during the reign of Rich. II. The most curious representation is that etched by 
Carter, in his Ancient Sculpture and Painting, from a carved miserere, of the dose of 

Digitized by 




Naylyn. Clavo. 

Naytyn, or denyyii (nayyn, s.) 

NegOi abnego, denego, 
Nakare, or he ]>at spoylythe men 

of clothys. Denudator. 
Nakyd. Nudus. 
Nakyd, or made nakyd. Denu- 

Nakyn, or make nakyd (or 

strypyn, or streppyn, infra.y 

Nudoy denudo. 
Nakynge, or nakydnesse (or 

stryppyng, infra.) Nudacio^ 

Name. Nomen. 
Namely, Precipue. 
Namely, or syngulere. Preci" 

puu8 {singularis, p.) 
Namyn (or nemelyn*, infra.) No' 

minoy denominot cognomino. 
Nape of an hedde (or naterelle, 

infra.) Occiputy cervix ^ vertex. 

Napet, or napekyii. Napelkh 

manupiarium (mapella, p.) 
Napyn, or slefi be the nape 

(sclape in y^ nape, harl. ms. 

9S74, slepe be )>e nese, s. slene 

m the nape, p.)^ Occipito. 
Nappyn, or slomeryn naclomar- 

ynge, harl. ms. 2274.) Dor^ 

Nappynoe, or slomerynge. Dor- 

Naprun (or barmclothe, supra.) 

Limasy cath. et uo. in Umisy 

Narowe (narwe, k. h. s.) Stt^ic' 

Narowhede. Strictura. 
Natte, or matte.^ Matta^ stariumy 

CATH. et c. F. 
Naterelle, idem quod nape, 

Nave of a qwele (qwyl, s. whele, 

the XlVth cent, formerly in one of the stalls at Worcester Cathedral, and now placed 
on the cornice of the modem organ-screen, over the entrance from the nare. 

1 *' To nakyne, nudare^ deteffere, exuere, A nakynynge, nudaeio,** oath. ano. 
*' Nudo, t. ejepoliare, Src. to naken. DenudaciOf a nakenynge." ortus. In R. Bmnne's 
Version of Langtoft's Uhron. a satirical ballad is given on the victory of £dw. I. oyer 
the Scots at Dnnbar, 1294. Ed. Heame, p. 277. 

" Oore fote folk put >am in \>e polk, and nakned >er nages." 
Compare the extract from the original Chron. given by Mr. Wright, App. to Polit. 
Songs, p. S.95. In Roy. MS. 20 A. XI. the word is written «<nakid ;'' in Cott. MS. 
Julias, A. v. " nackened.*' In the earlier Wicliffite version Levit. zz. 19 is thns ren- 
dered : ** The fil^heed of thi moder sister, and thi fader sister thow shalt not disconer ; 
who that doth this, the shenship of his flesh he shal nakyn." A. -Sax. benacan, nudare, 

« •« I miwpe one in y* necke, I stryke one in y* neckcp ie aecotteUe, and iefrappe au 
col. Beware of hym, he wyll nawpe boyes in y* necke, as men do conyes.** palso. 
** A nawp, a blow. Hit him a nawpe. See Yorksh. Dial. p. 68." Bp. Kennett's Gloss. 
Con. Lansd. MS. 1033. Compare Brockett, and Craven Gl. v, Naup. 

9 '* A natte, Horiumt storiolum. A natte myaker, sioriator. To make nattes, #/oHar«." 
cath. ano. **Storiolo, to cover with nattes." onrus. '* Nat maker, iui/t«r.** palbo. 
In the carious poem entitled the Pilgrimage to Jerasalem, Cott. MS. Yitell. C. xiii. 
f. 173f y^t one of the characters introdnced is the '< Natte makere,'* who holds long 
discourse with the Pilgrim. Nattvb are mentioned again under the word kedtl, as 
** boystows ware," or coarse manufacture. 

* This word is usually written haterelle, but the letter n. taken from the preceding 
article, is here, as in many other like cases, by prosthesis prefixed to the substantiTe. 

CAMD. soc. 2 z Ocei- 

Digitized by 




P.)* Modius, et modiolus, c. f. 

timpanum, CATH. canlus, cath. 

meditulliwny uo. in medius* 
Navee, or gaderynge to-gedyr of 

many shyppys. Classis, na- 

vigiumy CATH. stoltUy cath. 
Nkb, or byl of a byrd (neble, s.y 

Nbde. Necessitas, necessitudo, 

necesssy indigenciay egestas (in- 

edia, p.) 
Nedefulle. Necessarius. 
Nedy. Egensy indigens. 
Nedy, or pore. Inops. 
Nedle (nedil, k.) Acus. 
Nedyl, to sow wythe nattys, or 

o)>er boystows ware (nettys, or 

oder boystys ware, s.)^ Broccusy 

Nedyl case. Acuariusy c. f. 
Nedyn. Indigeoy egeo. 
Neddyr, or eddyr. Serpens. 
Neyhborowre (neybour, k. ney- 

bowre, s. neygbbour, p.) Prox- 

imusy vieinus, proximoy vidncu 
Neyhbore, of ]>e same strete. 

Convtcaniusy convieania. 
Neyboredb (neygbbourhede, p.) 

Proximitasy vicinitas. 
Neyhhyn*, or come ny (neyhin, 

K. neighen, or come nere, p.) 

Appropinquoy approximo, 
Neyyn, as nors (or neyjynge, 

harl. MS. 2274.) Hinnio. 
Neyynge of horse (nyng, K. 

neyynge, or nyjynge, harl. 

MS. 2274.) Hinnitus. 
Ney(se), tene, or dyshese (neyse, 

or tene, or disese, k. h. p.)^ 

Tediumy nocumentumy gravor 

Neythyr (neydyr, s. neyyir, p.) 

Nekkb. Collum. 
Neke name, or eke name.^ Ag' 


** Oeeioicium, >e hatereHe of ^ hede. Itneon, dicitur cervix, a haterel.*' mbd. In the 
Lat.-Eng. Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. are given ** Occiput, nodyll: vertex, 
haterele : discritnen, schade t tupa, fortoppe.** ** An haterelle, cervix, cervicula, 
vertex.** oath. ano. " HatteroU, hascerei:* palsg. Cotgrave says that a man's 
throat, or neck, is termed by the Walloons hastereau; bat ktuterel, or haterel, is an old 
French word of frequent occurrence, which signifies, according to Roquefort, the nuque, 
or nape of the neck. Hence, probably, may be derived the name of the Hatterel HiUs, 
between Brecon and Hereford. 

1 ** MeditulUum, a carte nathe (a/, navelle.)" if ed. " Modiolus, lignum groeswn m 
medio rote, per quod caput axis immittitur, 8fc. Anglice nathe." oetub. " Naue of a 
whele, moyevL Nathe, stocke of a whele.'' palso. Ang.-Sax. nafa, modiolus, 

3 '* A nebbe, rostrum, roetriUum.*' cath. amo. *' Neble of a womani pq>pe, bout 
de la mamelle,** palso. Ang.-Sax. neb, caput. 

3 — boystors, ms. Compare botstows, rudis, p. 42, and stoor, or hard, or boys- 
tows, hereafter. Broccus, or broea, in French brocks, is a packing needle, an awl, or 
a goad. See Blount's Tenures, under Havering, Essex. 

* See NOTTNOB, or noyze, and tene. Compare French noiee, ennuis Lat. noxia. 

* Junius derives nick-name from nom de nique, an expression borrowed, as he sup- 
poses, from the Ital. niquot iniquo; but there can be little doubt that the word is 
formed simply by prosthesis, the final n. being transferred from the article to the sub- 
stantive. ** Agnomen, an ekename, or a surename." med. *' An ekname, agnomen, 
dicitur a specie, vel acetone, agnominacio,** cath. ano. '* Nyckename, brocquart" 
palsg. ** Sobriquety a surname ; also, a nickname, or by-word." coto. ** Suturroy 

Digitized by 



Nemelyn', idem quod namyn* 
Nbpe, herbe.* Coloquintidn^ CU' 
curbita (cucurbica agrestU^ P.) 
Nepte, herbe.2 Nepta* 
NEEREyOrny. Proper juxta. 
Neere of a beest^ R^ 

Nethtrtheles (nertheles, k« 
neythirlesse, s. neuerthelesse, 
p.) NichUominuMy tamen (ye- 
runtameny p.) 

Neschtn, or make nesche,^ MoUi' 

a prioje whisperer, or secret earrjtale that slanndereth, backebiteth, and nicketh ones 
name." Junias, Nomendator, by John Higiiis, 1585. 

1 Compare wttinbpb, eueurbita, Ang.-Saz. ncpe, nepug. 

^ Nepeta cetaria, Lian. common cat-mint, or nep. Ang.-Sax. naepte, nepeia. 
** PUtrum, qnedam herba venifera, neppe.*' ortus. " Neppe, an herbe, herbe du 
ehat,*^ PALBO. Forby gives the Norfolk simile '* as white as nep,*' in allusion to 
the white down which covers this herb. 

* ** Ben, the nere."* med. **Lumbue, a leynde, vel idem quod ren, AngHe^ a nayre." 
OKTUS. '' Neare of a beest, roipum,** palso. Gander de Bibelesworth says, Arnnd. 
MS. 390, 

^ De dene le core en ckeeun kamme 
Bet troui quer,/oye, epomottn (liaere ant lange) 
Letf plen, beueiet, ei reinimn (neres).*' 

In Sir Tl&omas Phlllipps' MS. '' reynowi, kydeneyre." In the later Wicliffite version 
Levit iii. 33 is thus rendered : ** >ei schul offre twey kideneiren {duoe renet, Vulg.) 
wi|> \>e fatnesse by whic )>e guttis clepid ylion ben hilid.'* The following recipe is 
given in Harl. MS. 279, f . 8 : " To make bowres (browes ?) — take pypis, hertys, nerys, 
an rybbys of the swyoe, an chop them— an seme it forthe for a good potage.*' In 
Norfolk, according to Forby, near signifies the (at only of the kidneys, pronounced in 
Suffolk nyre. P^ge gives the term as denoting the kidneys themselves. Compare 
Dan. nyre, the kidneys. 

4 ** MollieuluSf neisshe, or softe. MolHcia, softenesse, or neisshe. MoUeo, to be 
neeshe." mcd. ** Nescbe, moUU, etc. ubi softe.'* oath. amo. *' Tendre — nice, nesh, 
puling, delicate.^* cot«. '' In bard and in nesche," WiU. and Werwolf, 19, SO, is, 
according to Sir F. Madden, a common poetical phrase : it is used by Chaucer. In 
the later Wicliffite version the word occurs as follows, S Chron. xziv. S7 : " For Inm 
herdist )>e wordis of be book, and H herte is maad neische {emollitum eet, Vulg.) and 
|>ou art mekid in |>e si^ of the lord.'' See also R. Brunne ; Octouian, v. 1310 ; Seuyn 
Sages, V. 733. Among recipes for the craft of limning books, MS. in the collection of 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, 8186, f. 148, is the following : *' To make coral. Take hertys 
homes and mader, an handful or more, and sethe hit tyl hit be as neysche as glewe." 
One cMf the virtues of betony, as detailed in Cott. MS. Jul. D. viii. f. 181, is that with 
honey " hit is good for N coaghe, and hit makethe nesshe wombe." A marvellous 
recipe is preserved in Sloane MS. 73, f. 315, v* : " For to make glas neache. Take )>e 
gotes blode lewke, and \>e iuyse of seneuey, and boile hSm wel to-gedms ; and wi> l>o 
tweye materes boyle wd H glas ; and H glas schal bycome nesche as past, and if it be 
cast a^eyne a wal, it schal not broke." Sir John Maundevile, speaking of the form of 
the esrth, says that the hills were formed by the deluge, that wasted the soft ground, 
'* and the harde erthe and the rocke abyden mountavnes, wban the soft erthe, and 
tendre, wax nessche throghe the water, and felle, and becamen valeyes.*' Yoiage, p. 
368. Trevisa, in his version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 8 A. XII. says of stores in a fortified 
city, ** loke thou bane iren and stele of diners tempere, both harde and nesshe, for to 
nuJce with armoure ;*' and of the selection of good recruits, *' fisberSf fonlers, mnnonrs, 

Digitized by 




Nese, or nose, Nasus. 
Nese thyrlys.* Naris, 
Nesyn. StemtttOi cath. 
Nesynoe.2 Stemutado. 
Next, or moost ny (nest, k. 

neest,s. p.) Proxitnus, propin^ 

Nest of byrdys. Nidus* 
Nestlyd. Ntdificaius, 
Nestlyn (as byrdys, s.) Nidifico. 
Nestelyngb. Nidificacio. 

Nett, to take wythe fyscbe. Rete^ 
sageruh reciaculum (retictp- 
luniy p.) 

Neet, beest. Bos. 

(Neet, or hekfere, infra in styrk. 

Neet breydars. ReciaHus, 

Neet DRYVARE^rm€n/art««,c.F. 

Neet hyrde.^ Bubulcus. 

Neet howsb. Boscar, cath. 

Netyl, herbe. Urtica. 

and gestonn, lechonra, and holoan (are) not to be chosen to kayghtehode, ne not be 
sniAred to comme nyghe the strengthea — for thiea maner of menne with her lastea 
ahulle rather naashe the hartes of warrioars to Instes, thenne hardenne theim to fighte.*' 
This word is still commonly used in Shropshire, and some of the acyoining counties. 
See Hartshome*s Sslopia, and the Herefordshire Glossary. Ang.-Sax. nese, mollis s 
hnescian, mollirs, 

1 In the earlier Widiffite Tersion the word ** noos thrilUs " occurs, It Kings xiz. S8 ; 
and *'nesethirles'* in the later version, Job zl. SI. In the Boke of Curtasye the 
following admonition is given ; Sloane MS. 1986, f. 88, v^ : 

** Ne delf J>ou neuer nose thyrle, 
With thombe ne fyngur as jong gyrle.'* 

In the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth narys is rendered "nase HrUs." " A nese 
thyrle, nam." cath. ano. ** Nose thrill, tsndnm du nss, narine.^* palso. Ang.,- 
Suc. nass J^yrel, naris, >yrl,/orafiiffi. 

s The leeches of former times highly esteemed sternutatory powders, as eflicacious 
especially in disorders of the brain. The root of hellebore was most in request for 
this purpose, of which was formed *' neesing powder,*' and the plant was called in 
England, as in Germany, '* nieswoort," acoording to Gerarde, who mentions also the 
wild pellitory, Achillea Piarmica, as called ** sneesewoort, or neesing wort." Herman 
says that '* two or iij. nesys be holsom, one is a shrowed token ;*' and Palsgrave gives 
the observation, '* the physicians saye whan one neseth it is a good sygne, but an yueli 
cause ;** as likewise And. Boorde, in the Breviary of Health, c. 333, says, ** in English 
it is named stemutacion, or kneeing, the which is a good signe of an enyli cause." He 
seems, however, to approve of the moderate use of sneesing by means of the powder of 
Blebarus albvs, called ** kneeing powder.'* In Brand's Popular Antiqn. may be found 
many curious details regarding superstitions connected with sneesing. The following 
curious passage in the Golden Legend has not been noticed ; it thereby appears that a 
similar superstition existed in* regard to yawning. The " more Letanye,** it is sUted, 
was instituted by Pope Gregory during the pestilence called the botch, which afflicted 
the people of Rome with sudden death. ** In this maner somme snesynge they deyed : 
soo whan ony persone was herde snesinge, anone they y* were by sayd to him, God 
helpe you, or Cryst helpe you ; and yet endureth y' custome. And also whan he snesyth 
or gapeth he maketh tofore his face the sygne of the crosse, and blysseth hym, and yet 
endureth this custome.'* f. zxii^. v^. '* Nesyng with the nose, ettemuememt,** palso. 
Ang.-Sax. niesan, stemuiare, 

9 Nket btrpb, If 8, nethirde, k. '* Noetherde, or bulherde, bovuier.*^ falsg. 

Digitized by 




Netttl seede* Crnydispermch 

uo. in grus, 
Netlyd. Urticatus. 
Netlyn (wyth netlys, s.) Ur- 

ticoy vel urticis urercy cath, 
Netlynge, Urticacio. 
Neve, sonys sone. Nepos, c. p. 

quasi natus post. 
Neve, broderys sone. Neptts, c. f. 
Neve, systerys sonne. Sorariusy 

CATH, sobrinus, uo. in sereno. 
Neve, neuerthryfte, or wastour 

(nefyne thiyfte, or wastowre, 

s.)* Neposy et dicUur neposy 

ouia negans passum, scilicet ad 

(Newyn, or innuwyn, h. innwyn, 

p. Innovo,) 
Nevyr. Nunquam. 
Newme of a songe (nevme, h. 

neme, 8,y Neupmoy ^atisy neup' 

moy -mey cath. et est differentia 

inter neupma scriptum cum p. 

que est cantus, et neumay sins 

p. quod est Spiritus sanctusy 

secundum quosdam, versus no» 

Newte, or ewte, wyrme. Lacertus* 
Nethyr part of a thynge (or 

that is by-nethe, harl. ms. 

2«74, thai yt is bethen, sicy p.) 

Ny, or neere (ney or ny, harl. 

MS. 2274.) Propcyjuxta. 
Nyce.* Iners. 

Nycehede, or nycete. Inercia. 
Nycely. Inerte. 
Nypte (nifte, k. nyfte, h. s. p.)^ 

Nypt, broderys douter (nyfte, s.) 

Lectisy c. F. 
Nyogarde (or muglard, suproy 

or nygun, or pynchar, if^cu) 


' It appears that the term nephew was used in reproach, as nepo$ had been by 
Cicero, Horace, and other classical writers. In the Ortus nepos is explained as sig- 
nixing lusurionu: ** neptatio dicitur luxuria^ et tune dieitur a nepa, quod e$t valde 
ardent in luxurid,** 

s ** Neuma, t. vocwn emissio vel modulatio,** &c cath. The Abb^ Lebeuf, in his 
Traiti de chant eeclenaetique, p. 239y defines neuma to be an *' ahrigi^ ou recapitula' 
tion dee eons prindpaxuf eTune antienne, qui se fait sur la demiire eyllabe par uns 
simple varUti de eone, tone yjoindre aueune parole,** See Dacange, v, Pneuma. 

> In the Senyn Sages, t. 1414, the foolish burgess is said to have quitted bis home 
to seek a wife, " als moppe and nice." The word is also used by Chancer in the sense 
of foolish ; Cant. T. y. 5508, 6520. ** Ineolens, nyce, euperbu»t fatuue, moribue non 
eonveniene, Jntolentia^ nycete. Ineoleoy to be wantowne, to be nyce, and prowde." 
ifBD. Nice, according to Roquefort, signifies ** nuU-avieif ignorant^ nitis;** and 
Cotgraye renders it precisely in the sense giyen in the Promptorinm. **Nice, lither, 
lazie, slothfnll, idle, faint, slack; dnll, simple." Palsgraye gives *'Nyse, strange, 
nice, nyee, nyeee. Nyse, proper or feate, nHynot, gobe, coint. Nicenesse, eointerie, 
niceti,** See Jamieson, v. Nice. 

^ ** Neptie est filia filii vel Jllie.** mbd. Compare nbyb, broderys sone, neptis, 
Ntptb appears to be token ircnn the Latin word, as likewise the old French word 
nep$, a nephew. ** TYinepoe, terciue, a nepote." mbd. ms. cant. It may be re- 
mariced that nephew is occasionally nsed to denote a grandchild, as nepoe in Latin. 
Thus Elix. de la Pole, writing in 1501 to Sir Rob. Plompton respecting Germayne her 
grandson, who had married the Knight*s daughter, speaks of them as her ** neveu** 
and '* nese.*' See Mr. Stapleton's note on Plumpton Corr. p. 163. 

Digitized by 




Nyooardshepb. TenaciUM. 
Nyoromancbre (nygramoQcer*, 

p.) NigromanticHS. 
Nygromancy. Nigromancia* 
Nygun, idem quod nygard, mpra 

(or muglard. TWur.) 
Nyghte (nihtet k. nyth, h.) Nos. 
Nyghte crowb.^ i/ict(ic)oras. 
Nyghtyngalb. Filomitnay c. f. 
Nyghte mare (or mare, or 

wytche, tti/ra*) JEpialteSy vel 

ffialtesy c F. gerwMSOy et 

stria: (geromaxa^ p,) 
Nykyr.2 Sirenefpiwr, Nota 9upra 

in (mer)iiiajdynne. 
Nyle of Willie (nyl or wyl, s.)* 

NullipenHty plur* 
Nymyi«^ Capax. 
Nym kepe, or take bede. Intendoy 

attendof mcuko^ conMero, 
Nymyn, or takyn.^ Acdpioy et 

aHa eupra in takyn. 

1 The night-jar, Ggnimttlgu* Europaut, linn. U caHed in the North, according to 
the Craven Glossary, the night-crow. ** A nyghte raTcne, ceimmaf nieticorax, n^ctua, 
$trix,** OATH. ANO. ** Night crowe, creMet^eUe,** palso. 

' Wtktk, MS. nikyr, k. nykyr, h. nykir, p. Compare Mermaydyn, p. 334. 
A.-Sax. nicor, moMlrum fluviatile, " Niceras, '' Beowalf, t. 838. KiUan gives 
Tent. **necker, D<pmon aquatietUf Nfptunut, tnnongeut.** The Deity of the Sea, 
acoording to the Northern mythology, was called Necknr, a name which was taken, 
as Wachter supposes, from nack, equns, and nack, eymba, eguut fiwoiatiUt. See 
Keysler, Antiq. Sept. p. 263. Boucher's GL o. Anld-Nick ; and Sir F. Madden*s 
note on La^amon, 1322. Of ancient tales regarding the mermaid see Gresner, lib. iv. 
Stowe gives in his Annals, A.D. 1187, a marvellous relation of a merman taken near 
Orford Castle, Suffolk, and kept there many months by Earth . de Glanvile, as recorded 
by Rad. de Coggeshale, Cott. MS. Vesp. D. x. f. 88. The subject of Christian 
symbolism has been hitherto so neglected that no explanation has been suggested 
with regard to the frequent occurrence of the mermaid among decorations of a sacred 
character. It was likewise very frequently introduced, in medieval times, in the designs 
of embroidery, and ornaments of ordinary use. 

s The Latin term given here seems to denote that ntlb signifies sometiiing of no 
weight or account ; it may possibly denote the light flying particles, or flue, of wool. 
The white downy substance which arises when brass is exposed to strong heat is cdkd 
niU. " Nill, the sparkles, or ashes that come of brass tried in the furnace, pompholyxy 
tueia, nil albvMf nihili, ceris et eedmia faoilla.** ooulou. *' Nill, te9 Meailiet 
ifatratn." sbsrw. Palsgrave gives only " nayle of woU,** without any French word. 
Noils, according to Forby, signify, in Norfolk, coarse refuse locks of wool, fit for 
making mops. The reading of the Harl. MS. 2374 is '< nyle, or wulle ;" but the 
reading of the Windi. MS. would induce the supposition that the word had quite a 
different signification from that which has been suggested, and were derived from Ang.- 
Sax. nill, nen velle. 

* " Nemyll, cautut, etc, %tbi wyse.'* cath. ako. It would appear that the sense in 
which the word occurs in the Promptorium were handy and skilful in taking or nyming 
anything. Compai*e the use of the adverb " neemly ;** TowoL Myst. p. 105. Mr* 
CRAKE, a pilferer, is rendered cepax^ p. 336. *' Capax^ i, aandue tapienst ofte 
holdynge, or tokynge.** ortus. Palsgrave gives *'nymble, delyuer, or quycke of 
ones lymmes, toupie. Nymble, quycke, deliure,** 

* This old word is still in use in the Noith, aooording to Brookett, sigmiying to take 
up hastily, or steal privately. ''To nim, aedpere, furari, eudducere, starripere.^^ 
oouLDU. See Nares. Ang.-Sax. niman, capere. Compounded with the preposition 
be, or by, it occurs &equenUy, as used by Chaucer, in the sense of bereaving. Douglas, 

Digitized by 




Nyne. Novem. 

Nyne hundrtd. Nonaginti. 

Nyntbnb. Novemdeciniy vel de' 

cem et novem, 
Nynety. Nonaginta, 
Nypare, Compressor y trusor. 
Nypyn. Premo^ stringo. 
Nypynge. Compression 
Nyrvyl, or lytyl manne.^ PtisU' 

lusy nanuSi c. f. 
Nyte, Wynne. Z,ens, 
Nobylle, of mony, Nohile. 
NoBUL, or wiirthy (nobil, or wor- 

chip, K.) InclUusy nobiUs, egre* 

giusy insignis. 
NoBYLNESSE, oT grete worthynesse 

(nobiley, k. nobley, s. p.) No- 

hilUaSi escellencia. 
NoBYLY. NohilUerj exeellenier, 

inclite, egregtey insigniter. 

NoDDYNGE wythe til» heed. Con^ 

NoDYL, or Dodle of j)e heed (or 

nolle, infra.) Occiput. 
NoYYN,orgrevyn.2 Noceo; quere 

supra in grevyn. 
NoYYNGE, or noyze (or derynge, 

supra; nojzjngey harl. M8. 

2274.) ^ocumentum, grava- 

men, tedium, 
NoYSE, or dene (dyne, k.) Stre' 

pituSi sonitus. 
NoYOwsE, or grerowse. Nocivusy 

noxius, tedtosusy infestus. 
NoKKB of a bowe, or a spyndylle, 

or other lyke.* Tenoi^culus, 

KYLW. clavicukh kylw. (tenus^ 

tenarculus, p.) 
Nolle, supra, idem quod nodiil.^ 
NoMANNE. Nemo, 

the monk of GUstonbnrj, writes in his Chronicle that the King of France " sompnedde 
King Edwarde to come to Parys by a certdne day, to do his homage, and elles he wolde 
beneme him Gascoigne.'* Harl. AIS. 4690, f. 65, y«. ** I nomme, I Uke (Lydgate), 
leprens. This terme is dawche, and nowe none Englysshe." palso. 

> In Herefordshire a little person is termed a nnrpin, and in the North, according 
to Jamieson, a knnrl, nirb, nirl, nurg, norrit, or nauchle. Brockett gives nerled, 
ill-treated, pinched, as a child unkindly used by a step-mother. See nurvtll, dwerfe. 

s The verb to ** noye,'* or hurt, occurs in R. Brunne ; tiie Wicliffite yersion, i. Pet. 
iii. 13 ; Apoc. vii. 3 ; Vis. of P. P. &c. *' To noye (or desese), adversari, anxiari, 
grovare, molutare, A noye, angor^ anguttiHf grwameuy &c. Anguyse, ubi noe. 
Noied — Noyous—Un-noyous, ficc.** oath. ano. " TWtum, noye. Tedet, itnoyethe.** 
If ED. '* I noye, I yrke one, Penmtgt. We noye you paradnenture. I noye, I greue 
one, le nuy$. I noye, or hurte one, te nuy$. The felowe is so lothsome that he noyeth 
me horrybly. Noyeng, nuisance, Noysomnesse, or yrksomnesse, etwuy,** palso. 
Caxton says, in the Book for Travellers, <* fro noyeng of meschief (d^ennm) I wyll 
kepe me, but alleway lyue in ioye shall be my byledyng {mon dedmit.)** Compare 
nbt(8b), tene, or dyi>hese, p. 352. 

3 ** Nocke of a bowe, ocke de Pare. Nocke of a shafte, oehe de la Jieeehe, pemon, 
coche^ hehe. I nocke an arrowe, I put y* nocke in to y* s^nge, le encikgcAe.*^ palso. 
** Oche, a nick, nock, or notch ; the cut of a tally. CbcMst a nock, notch, nick, snip, or 
neb *, and hence also, the nut-hole of a crosse-bow.** cotg. Palsgrave gives the pro- 
verbial expression, <* he commendeth hym by yonde the nocke, ii U prite oultre bortf 
et oultre mesure.** 

^ In the later Wicliffite version Isai. iii. 17 is thus rendered : *' )>e lord schal make ballid 
)>e nol of the don^tris of Sion {deealvabit verticemy^ Vulg.) Tusser, in his abstract for 
February, gives the direction to strike off " the no wis of delving mo^,*' that is, of 
their hillocks. Ang. -Sax. cnoU, caewnen. Noddle of y * heed, eo^eoM de Im test,** p ALsa. 

Digitized by 




NoMYN, or take wythe j>e palsye.' 

NooNE, or neuer one (none, k. p.) 

NooNE, mydday (none, s. p.) 

(NoNYs, supra in F. for the 

NoppE of a clothe.2 Villus, to- 

mentum, c. F. iumentum, uo. 
NoppYD (noppy or wully, harl. 

MS. 2274, P.) Villosus. 
(NoppYD, p, Villatus.) 
NoppYNGB. VUlositaSf villatura, 
NoRYCE, or norys of chylder. 

NtUrixy gerulay cath. 
NoRYCE, or noryschare, and forthe 

bryngar fro 30uthe to age. Nu- 

tricius, nutricia^ 
NoRSCHYD, or forthe brow3t. 

Nutritusy enutritus* 
NoRSCHYD, and tawjte (norisshed, 

p.) Educatus. 
NoRSCHYN, (norisshen, p.) Nu- 

trioyJbveOf alo, cath. educo. 

NoRSCHYNGE, forthe bryngynge. 

NoRSCHYNGE, in manerys and 

condycyons (norshynge of god 

manere, k.) Educado. 
NoRSCHYNGE, of mete and fode 

(of mete and drynk, s.) Nutri" 

mentumy Jbmentum. 
NoRYSRYE, where yonge chyldur 

am kept (norshery, where 5ong 

childyr ben, k. am putte, s. 

uorcery, p.) Bephotrophium^ 

CATH. et UG. V. in T. 
Norths. Borea^ aquxLo? sep' 

Norths est. Euro aquilo, c. f. 

tiphonia, c. f. vultumus, c. f. 
Norths wests. AquHo ze^ 

phirusy c. F. 
NoRTURs, or curtesye.* Curt- 

alitasy urhanita^, 
(Nose, idem quod nese, k. h. p. 

Noselynggys (noslyngys, s.)* 

Suppinus (resupinuSf s.) 

1 See the note on ntutn. ** I benome, I make lame or take away the Tse of one's 
lymmes, Te perclos. I bane sene hym as lusty a man as any was in Englande, bat by 
ryot, and to moche tranayle, he is nowe benomme of hys lymmes. Benomme (or 
benombe of one's lymbes), perelus,*^ palbo. It is said in the Golden Legend, <* his 
hondes were so benomen, and so lame, that he myght not worke. Their armes were 
bynom, and of noo power.** '' He is taken or be nomed, ationiius ett, Tliis man is 
taken, or benomed, syderatui,*^ horu. Ang.-Saz. bensman, stvprfacem; p. part, 
benemed, benumen. 

3 ** A noppe of clothe, /tt^erttf, tuber, tumentum, Tonoppe, detuberare; 'tor, -trix, 
'Cio,*^ CATH. ANO. ^* Noppc of wolle, or clothe, cotton de tapis, Noppy, as clothe is 
that hath a grosse woffe, gros, Noppy, as ale is, vigoreux,^^ Caxton says, in the 
Book for TraTellers, " Clarisse the nopster {esbourysse) can well her craft, syth whan 
she lemed it, cloth for to noppe {esbourier.y* Ang.-Saz. hnoppa, tUlus, Noppe is 
synonymous with burle of clothe, p. 56, and denotes those little knots, which, after 
cloth has passed through the fulling-mill, are remoTcd by women with little nippers ; 
a process termed burling cloth. 

* Aflo, M8. aquilo, 8. p. " Northe parte or wynde, teptentrion, bgse.** palbo. 

* Horman says, ** It is nourture {pffieium est) to gyue place to your better." 

s **8upinus, naselynge.'' mbd. harl. ms. 2257. '* Supinus, layenge vpon the 
backe." ortus, Supinus appears to be given in the Promptorium, as previously, 
under the word grovelynoe, p. 215, in the sense of resupinus: nosbltkggte 

Digitized by 




(Nose thyrlys, idem quod nese 

thyrlys, k.) 
NosTYLLE of nettys (nostul, h.) 

Nastula, c. f. insHUh nasculus, 

c. F. 
NooTE, of soDge yn a boke.^ 

Notary. Notariusy tabellioy c. f. 
Note, frute. iVkr. 
Note, kyrnel (mete, or kyrnel, k.) 

Nucleus^ CATH. 

Note, tree. iVtwr, nttcliaritu, 


Note, dede of occupacyon. Opus, 

NoTH AK, byrde.2 Picus, c. f. ug. v. 

NoTEMYGGB. Nujf muscata. 
NoTYD. Notatus, 
NoTYNGE. Notacio. 
NoTUN songe. Noto. 
NoTUN, or vsyn. Utor, 
Now. Nuncyjam^ modo. 
NowcHE.* MoniUy c. f. et Dice. 

SCUtulay CATH. 

NowHTE (nowth, K. nowte, s. 

nought, p.) NichiL 
N0W3TE wuRTHE. Invalidus, 
NowTHE CUN, or haue no cun- 

ny(n)ge (cone, h. nought kun, 

v.y Ne$cio. 
NowTHE know. Ignoro. 
NowTHE MOWN. Nequeo. 

seems to be synonymous with that word, as also with wombelyng, and compounded of 
Ang.-Saz. nses, and lanSt along. 

1 NooTX, or synge, ms. noote of songe, 8. 

s <* A nutte hake, picu$, corcisau,^* cath. ano. *' Pieutf a nnthawke.** ortus. 
" Nothagge, a byrde, iaye.** palso. Sitta Europea, Linn, the nuthatch, or nut- 
jobber, Willughby, the woodcracker, Plot, Hist. Ozf. 175, named from its singular 
habit of hacking and cleaving nuts. In the Grammar of R. Whitinton, part first, b 
mentioned ** picus, avis que ca»at arbor e$, Angliet^ a vynde." 

s It might be at first sight concluded that this word was merely a variation of spelling, 
the final n. being taken from the article, and by prosthesb prefixed to the substantive 
ouch. It seems, however, probable that nowchb is a corruption of the Latin word 
ntaco, or nuxat a broach or fibula. See Ducange. In the Inventory of the Jewels of 
Blanche of Spain, 1299, Liber Card. 28 Edw. I. p. 353, are mentioned with^rmactt/a, 
broaches or clasps, **j, nouchia ad modum aquile aurta^ cum rub* et ameraudiit precii 
d, H» iuron* nigrorum, j, nouchia auri, cum imaginibus Regit et Regine, de armie 
Franc\ cumpetrarid diversd, precii ce. ^l. li. turon*,** In the list of jewels taken 1310, 
preserved in the Wardrobe Book 2 Edw. II. Harl. MS. 315, f. 48, is the entry ** nusche 
auri precii cjp.t,*' two others, of the value of iiij. /t. and vij. marks ; and vr.firmacula 
of gold, one of which was worth zxv. marks. '* Lunule sunt proprie auree bullule de- 
pendentes, ad similituditiem lune facte, quibus mulieres solebant omare pectus suum ; 
Anglice an ouche or a barre.** ortus. ' ' My mother hath a ryche ouche (preeiosisstmum 
segmentum) hangynge aboute her necke. He hath an ouche (monile) of golde gar- 
nisshed with precyouse stoonys. Ladis of Ynde were preciouse stonys and ouches in 
theyr earis {elenchis et erotaliis.) He gave her an ouche couched with pearlys and 
precious stonys {rnonile margaretis et gemmis consertum.**) horm. " Nouche, or brocbe, 
afficquet, Ouche for a bonnet, afficquet, affichet,** palso. *' Fermaglio, the hangeyng 
owche, or flowre that women use to tye at the chaine or lace that they weare about their 
neckes." W. Thomas, Ital. Grammar, 1548. The designs of Holbein, executed for 
Hen. YIII. afford exquisite specimens of this kind of ornament. Sloane MS. 5308. 

* Compare contn, p. 89> and cunnx, or to haue ounnynge, p. 109. ** To cunne, 
scire, etc. ubi to cone." cath. ano. 


Digitized by 




NowTHE WYLN (nowtwyllyn, r. 
nought willyn, p.) Nolo, 

NouYCE, or novys. Noviskts. 

NovYSRYE (nouycery, h, s. p.) 

NovYL, or navyL Umbilicus, 

NowMELYs of a beest (nowm- 
belys, K. nowmel, h.)^ Bur- 
balia, plur. a f. vel burbioy 
KYLW. et vo, in burgus. 

No WM ER E. Numerus. 

NowMERoN*. Numeroy annumero. 

NowMBRYNGE. Numerucio, 

N(o)wMPERE,or owmpere (nowm- 
powre, or wompowre, s.) Ar^ 
bitevy sequester, cath. et c. p. 

NowuNDYR (nowonder, p.) iVt- 

NowTUN, or syettyn at nowhte 


(nowhtyn, or sette at no5te, s. 

sett at Dowth, harl. ms. S274, 

noughtyn, p.) VilipendOfJloC' 

tipendoy c. f. nulloy adnuUoj 

nichilof nichilpendo, 
NwE (nev, s.) Novus, 
NwE ALB.2 Celia, c, f. 
NvLY (nwely, k.) Noviter, 
NwE MONE. Neomenia* 
NwYN, or make newe. Innovo 

(renovOf p.) 
(NvYNGE, or ynnewynge, harl. 

MS. 2274. Innovo.) 
NuNE, womann of relygione 

(nvnne, K. p.) Monicdisy mo- 

(Nun, or none, p, Nona,) 
NuNMETE.3 Merenddy cath. an" 

tecenium, cath. 

* The interpretation given by Uguitio is " BurbuliOf intettina mqfora," ar. ms. 
508. '* |>e nownbils of a dere, burbilia, pepinum,*^ cath. ang. *< Burbiliat Angliee 
nombles. Popinum, nombles.'* ortub. ** Nonmblet of a dere, or beest, eniraiUet,** 
PAL86. ** Pracordia, the numbles, as tbe hart, the splene, the Innges, and lyaer.'* 
BLTOT. See Ducange, v, Numbiiet Numble, and Roquefort, v, Nomble, a portion cut 
from between the thighs of the deer. ** Noumbles " are mentioned in Gawayn and the 
Grene Kny^t, ▼. 1347. See Sir F. Madden's notes, p. 322 ; and A Jewell for Gentrie, 
1614, sign. F. e. The term nombles did not, as it would seem, denote only the 
entrails of the deer. In *<Dame Julyans Bemes boke of huntynge *' minute instruc- 
tions are given ** how ye shall breke an harte,** sign. e. j. ▼<*, ed. 1496. The skin 
having been stripped off, and the inwards removed, the nombles are to be cut according 
to particular directions, the <* nerys " or kidneys belonging to them ; and they are to 
be trussed up careftdly in the skin, and carried home for the lord ; whilst the inwards 
and other parts are otherwise distributed. " Nombles^ piece de chair, qui ee leue mitre 
es cuiseee du cerf: cervi petimen, eervinum tpetile,** mo net. See a recipe for 
i** Nomblys of ]>e venyson," Harl. MS. 279, f. 9. See also Forme of Cury, pp. 15, 16, 
94. Skinner writes the word the " humbles *' of a stag, and rightly considers it as 
derived from Mmbilicus, 

s Compare alr, whyle it is newe, p. 9; and ottldb, or new ale, p. 193. 

B ** MereruUif a none meete. Anticenia, a nonemele. Cenobiiay a nonemele." mbd. 
*< A nvne mete, anteeenoy anticenum, tnerenda,** oath. ang. " Merenda ett cotneetio 
vel tpaeiatue in meridie, vel ett cibus qui declinante die sumitur, Merendula, a beuer 
after none." " Merenda, breakefast, or noone meate.*' Tbomaa, ItaL Gramm. 1548. 
In the Towneley Myst. p. 234, noyning signifies, as explained in the Glossary, a noon- 
nap, or M>«/a. '* tie has myster of nyghtes rest that nappys not in noyning.*' Bp. 
Kennett gives the following note in his Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033. 
** Nooning, beavre, drinking, or repast ad nonam, three in the afternoon, cidled bv the 
Saxons non-msete, in y* North parts a noonchion, an afternoon's nunchion.'' In 

Digitized by 




(NuRUYLL, dwerfe, 

nyruyll, p.) 
(NussBy fisshe, p.)^ 

mpra tn 

Obettn, or be buxum. Obedioy 

pareoy cath. obtempero^ 
Obly, or vbly (brede to aej wythe 

masse, infra.y Nehuith Dice. 

UG. V. tit C. (adorioj injra.) 
Oblycon, or byynd be worde 

(oblycyon, h. oblygacone, s. 

oblygeren, w.) Obligo, 
Oblygacyon. Obligacio, ciro- 

graphuiy oath, et c. f. et ug. tit 

OccASYONE, or enchesone (or 

cause, supra.) Occasio. 
OcoRN, or acorn, i^te of an oke 

(oocome, or akome, p.) Giants 


OcuLus CHRiSTi,herbe.* Hispiaj 
vel hupia niinor^ et major di" 
citur cow wede (cheken wede, p.) 

OccuPACYONE, or dede. Occu- 




Norfolk and Saffolk, according to Grose, Forby, and Moor, the meal taken by reapers 
or laboorers, at noon, is still <»lled noonings. See also Noonin, in the Craven Glos- 
sary ; and Nammet, Somerset. Harrison, in his Description of England, written about 
1579, gives some curious remarks on the customs of ancient times respecting meals, 
cited in the note on bbubr, p. 34. Holinsh. Chron. i. 170. 

* Haldorson gives Islandic, *' hnysa, delphmusmininnu, delphmUeut ; Dan. marsvin.** 
" Husse, a fysshe, rauietie.^* palsg. Compare huskb, fyshe, p. S54. 

* In the Latin-Eng. Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587, is given ** oblatum, a oblay :** in Roy. 
MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 26, *♦ nebula, noble ; vqfra, wayfvre.'* " Oblema, an obley. 
Nebula, a wafron~/7ani> nebula coeiu9 cum duplici ferro. ortus. See the minute 
directions of Abp. Lanfranc as to the mode of preparing the wafer for sacred purposes ; 
Wilkins, Cone. i. 349. In the regulations for the edlowance to the Household of 
Hen. II. Liber Niger, ed. Heame, i. 344, the '* nebulariui^* and his man occur after 
the pittoree. Oblys were not exclusively of sacred use ; in the Forme of Cury, 

5. SI , it is directed to " take obleys, o>er wafrouns, in stede of lozeyns, and cowche in 
ysshes,*' as sippets for *' hares in papdele.'* During the Coventry Pageant, on oc- 
casion of the visit of Prince Edward, 1474, *' at the Crosse in the Croschepyng were 
iij. prophets standyng seynsyng ; and upon the crosse a-boven were childer of Issarell 
syngyng, and castyug out wbete obles, and floures.*' Sharp, Cov. Myst. p. 153. The 
following physical charm is found in a collection made towards the close of the XVth 
cent. Add. MS. 12,195, f. 136, v« : ** For feueres. Take iij. oblyes, and wryte in one 
of hem, -j-.l. Elyze -|- Sabeth -}- In the o>er, Adonay -(- Alpha and oo. + Meseias -|- 
In [>e iij. pastor 4- Agnus fons -|- Let hym ete these iij. in iij. dayes, with holy 
water fastyng, and he xal be heyl be the grace of God ; and sey v. pater nostris, v. aue 
Maria, die crede, in the worschip of God, and of Seynt Pemel.'' In the detailed 
account of the coronation of Queen Mary, 1553, preserved at the College of Arms, it 
is stated that gold and an '* oble " were laid as an offering upon the altar. 

' Compare matfblon, p. 329, where cow wede is said to be the Jacia alba. In 
Sloane MS. 5, Oculue CkrUti is said to be the same as calendula and ** soUequium, 
Gall. soUicle, Ang, Sevnte Marie rode. SoUequium, Rodewort, o)>er marygoldys.'' 
Cotgrave gives ** Orvale eauffage, wild clary, double clary, ocle Christi.*' 

4 This verb very commonly occurs in the sense of to use. Horman says, " Some 
shipmen occupie saylis of ledier, nat of lynen, nether of canuas. Women occupye 
pynnis to araye them." " This latton basen cankeryth, for faulte of occupyeng, par 
faulte d^eetre veiU, I occupye, ie vHie, for ie ote is to weare. I praye you be nat 
Mgrye, thonghe I haue occupyed your knyfe a lytell.*' palso. 

Digitized by 




OcuR, or vsure of gowle.* Usura. 

OcuR, colure. Ocroy kylw, 

Odde. Impar. 

Odyows, or be-hatyd. Odionts. 

Odowre, or relece. Odor. 

Oop, threde for webbynge,^ 
Tramoj cath. stamen^ c. f. 
9uhtegmeny cath. 

Offal, that ys bleuit of a tbynge, 
as cbyppys, or ojwr lyke ()»at 
levyd of a thinge, as cbippys of 
tre, K. that beleueth of a thinge, 
as chyppys of trees, p.) Car 
ducufih c. F. 

Of howsholde, or dwellynge 
in howsholde. Mancionariusy 
mancionariay domesticusy do- 

Offeryn. Offero. 

Opferom, or make sacryfyce. 

Offerynge. Ohlacio. 

Offerynge, or presaunt to a 
lorde at Crystemasse, or ojwr 
tymys.* Nejfrendiciunh cath. 
in nefrendii. 

Offertory. Offertoriunu 

Offyce. Officium. 

^ ** Feneror, (to) okur. />n«rfl/or, an okcrere." m«d. * * Okyr, /enw, wntra. An 
okerer ; to do okyr, &c. An Tsure, usura, etc, ubi okyr.'* cath. ano. Ang.-Sax. 
vroc^Tt/htetvs, uiura. In the earlier Wicliffite version it is said of the " comelyng/* 
Dent, xzriii. 44, '* He shal oker to thee (a/, ganyl) and thon shalt not oker to hym/* 
In the later version ** leene," (fcenerabitt Vulg. ) Hardyng says of the times of Edw. I. 
that great complaints were made of the " okoure and vsury '* practised by the Jews 
abiding in the land. Chron. c. 150. The curious compilation, entitled Fio» Jiorum, 
Bumey MS. 356, comprises the points and articles of *' Corsynge or mansynge/* to be 
shewn by each parson to his flock four times in the year, in the mother tongue ; in which 
are named " alle vsureres, alle )>at make)> oJ>er write)> )>at oker shal be payd ; o)>er yf 
hyt be payd, >at hyt ne be restored.** p. 98. So likewise it is said in the ancient 
treatise cited in Becon's Reliques of Rome, 1563, p. 253, that ''all okereris and 
usureris (ben accursed), that is to say, if a man or woman lend good to her neyhbour 
for to take aduauntage for her lending." In the verses on the seventh commandment 
in the " Speculum Xpistiani ** (by John Watton ?) it is said, 
'* Be thou no theef, no theuys fere, 

Ne nothyng wynne thurgh trechery : 

Okur nor symonye come thou not nere, 

But conscience clere kepe ay truly.*' 
See also Towneley Myst. p. 162; Reliqu. Ant. ii. 113 ; and the Castell of Labour, W. 
de Worde, 1506, sign. c. iij. where the companions of avarice are said to be usury, 
rapine, false swearing, and ** okerye.*' 

* In the earlier Wicliffite version, Lev. ziii. 47 is thus rendered : " A wullun clooth, 
or lynnen that hath a lepre in the oof (in staminet Vulg.) or in the werpe— it shal be 
holdun a lepre.** Stamen is properly the warp, or ground-work of the web, as it is 
rendered in the Ortus ; iratna is the woof, or transverse texture. Ang.-Sax. weft, tub' 
tegmen. The reading of the MS. is Traura^ but as no such word is found in the 
Catholicon, the reading of the Winch. MS. and Pynson*s edit, has been adopted. 
" Tramatjfiium inter stamen discurrene.** cath. 

* '* N^endiciumf a cherles rent, and a present of a disciple.** med. harl. ms. 
SS70. Compare omaob, which is rendered likewise by the word nefrendicium. In the 
Catholicon nefrendicium is said to be derived from n^endie, a barrow pig, and to 
signify ** annuale tributum quod ruatici auie dominie circa nativitatemt vet alio tempore 
annii eolent afferre ; et quod parvi diecipuli suie doctoribue apportant^ duntaxat sit 
cameum, eciUcet poreellue vet ht^utmodi,** In Brand's Popular Antiquities much 

Digitized by 




Ofpyce, or place of offyce. Offi- 

cina, c. p. 
Offycyalle. OJUdalis. 
Offycere. Officiarius. 
Offycere of cruelte, as bayly, or 
. iajlere, or other lyke. Satelles, 


Op o COLO w re (one colowre, s.) 

Of o lykenesse (or lyke, k. s. p. 
. of one lykenesse, s. p.) Uhi- 

O POTE (offote, H. p. on fote, s.) 

O POTYD beest (o foted, or one 

foted best, p.^ Loripes, cath. 
Of o wylle (of one wyll, s. p.) 

Uhanimis, cath. unias morisy 

CATH. in iij^. parte. 
Oftyne. Sepe, multodesy fre^ 

quenteVy plerumque. 
(Oyl, idem quod oiy, infra.) 
Oyle wythe oyle. 
(Oynement, or onyment, infra. 

Oyster, fysche, Ostrecty vel 

ostreum, c. p. 
Oyster, shelle. Ostrea. 
Oke, tre. Quercusy ylexy c. p. 

(OoLD ooK, H. olde oke, p. Hex, 

c. p.) 
Oke appul. Galla. 
(Oke plante, p. Omus.) 
Olde, or elde. Antiquus, vetusy 

veteranusy $enexy grandevusy 

annosus (veterattUy P.) 
Ole, for-weryd, as clothys, and 

other thyngys. Vetustusy de- 
Olde shepe, beest. Adasiay uo. 

in agnus. (^Arva valet vitCy 

sed adasia cra^sa lanistey s.) 
Olde womann, supra in elde 

Oly, or oyl. Oleum. 
Oly drestys.^ Amurcay c. p. 
Olyet, made yn a clothe, for 

sperynge (made on a cloth to 

spere, p.)^ Fibulariumy cath. 

(gusibuiariumy K.) 
Olyet, hole yn a walle (olyet, 

lytell hole, h. p.) Foramulumy 

CATH. (thecayforulusy P.) 
Olyfawnt, or elephawnt. Sle- 

phasy barrusy c. p. elephantus. 
Oly MANN, or he that makythe, 

or syllythe oyle. Oleariusy 

olearia, uo. 

cQiioos information may be found on the origin and custom of presenting gilts at 
Christmas and the New Year ; but the particular usage to which allusion is made in the 
Promptorium has been insufficiently noticed. It seems that it was customary for in- 
feriors to present gifts to their superiors at this season, as the dependants of the court 
to the Sorereign, the yassals to their lord, or the scholars to the pedagogue. M. Paris 
complains of the extortion of " primitwa, qua vtdgaret nova dona novi atmi tuperttitiote 
Bolent appellar€t^* from each of the wealthier citizens of London, in 1249* The precise 
period at which this became an established usage has not been ascertained : numerous 
evidences regarding it may be found in the Inquisitions which set forth the customs of 
manors, such as those printed in Clutterbuck*s Hertfordshire, iii. pp. 614, 618, the 
Household Books, Privy Purse Expenses, and Nichols*s Progresses of Queen Elizabeth 
and James the First. 

1 See DRESTT8, p. 131. *'Fer, drestus. Fecula, a litul drast.'' mbo. The term 
** drastis ** (faces, Vulg.) occurs in the Wicliffite version, Isai. xlix. 6. Of the medi- 
cinal properties of ** drestis *' of wine, see Arund. MS. 43, f. 86. 

3 ** Oyliet hole, oillet:* palso. <* Oet7/e/, an oilet-hole.** cotg. 

Digitized by 




Oly potte, or oly vesselle, Bml- 

cadiu/mt c. f. et VQ, m micoy 

oleariuniy UG. 
Olyve, propyr name. Olwa. 
Olyve, tre. Oliva. 
Oylyynoe wythe oyle. OlecuAo. 
Omaoe (or viuage, infra.) Ho- 

magiunh nefrendiciumy cath. 

et uo. in apes. 
Omager. HomagiariuSf ho' 

OoNE. Unu». 
On ABLE. Inhahilit, ineptus. 
OoNE a-cordyd, or ftd a-cordyd 

to-gedur iu herte or wylle (ona- 

coi^ K. of one acorde, s.) 

On a thronoe, or to-gedor 

(onarowe, k.) Gregatiniy tur^ 

OoN, a-lone. Unicus. 

On-a-vysyd. InproviiUM. 
OoN BE-ooTYN. UfUgeniiuM. 
Onbyndyn, or loayn (onbyyndyn, 

or solyyn, s.) Solvoy essolvo. 
Onbuxum (or sturdy, tft^o.) 

InobedienSf contumcuCy rebeUie. 
Oncerteyns. Incertut. 
On-chaste. InpudicuSf lu" 

bricuif incontinene. 
Onclenb. Inmundusy inpurus. 
On-comely. Indecens, diffbrmis, 
On-cunnynge. InsciuSf tgnarus. 
Oncuryn, or on-hyllyn. Detego, 

discooperioy cath. 
Oncurteys. Incurialis (tngra- 

tus, p.) 
OoNDE, or brethe (onde, k. h. p.)* 

Ond YN, or brethyn . Aspiro, anelo. 
Ondedely. Immortalis. 
On-defyyd.3 Indigeetfis. 

1 Onde, signifying breath, occurs in Kyng Alis. 3501 ; Rich. Coer de lion, 4848. 
Gant. de Bibelesworth says that ladies take good care to wash well their mouths, 

** Kar Penchesottn est eerteyne, 
Ke elee le fount pur bw aleyne (god onde.)*' Ar. MS. 230, f. 897, Y". 

In Arund. MS. 42, f. 48, Betonica is recommended as a specific ** for cowh, and streyt 
onde : po(wder) of hym my^t with darefied hony noble for hem )>at ben strey^t ondyd, 
and ban |>e cowh, and for do)> haketynge, and swuch." Bolue Armemcus also is said 
to afford '* noble helpe for hem \mt han >e asme, as for elde folk >at am streyt ondyd, 
if >ey drynkyn it ;*' f. 50, r^. See also a remedy for ** shorte onde," f. 53, b. ; and 
the Tirtnes of thyme ** for hem )>at ben anelows, i. streyt ondyd,** f. 80. " ffalOf to 
onde, or brethe, or razuUe. AUtue^ oondynge, and norysshynge. Anelo, to oonde, or 
pantt. Anelitue^ oonde.** mbi>. Andrew Boorde, in the BreTlary of Health, 1575, c. 20, 
writes, <*of aman*s breth, or ende, ait«/^hf«; in Englysheitis named the breath, or 
ende of a man, the which other whyle doth stynk, or hath an euyll savour.** See Aynd, 
Eynd, and End, in Jamieson. Grose gives yane, the breath, in the Northern Dialect. 
Ang.-Saz. ond, epiritue. Compare Iriandic, anda, epiro; find, anima. 

< See the note on DsrTTif ' mete, p. 115. In the earlier Wicliffite Tersioo, 1 Kings, 
xzT. 37 is thus rendered : ** Forso^e in ^ morewtid whanne Nabal hadde defied )>e 
wfjn {digeeeieeety Vulg.) his wijf schewide to hym all )>ise wordis, and his herte was 
almest deed wi)> ynne." In the later the folio wing passage occurs. Dent, xxiii. 13 : 
** )>ou schalt haue a place wi)>out [>e castels, to which )>ou schalt go out to nedeful 
Hngis of kynde, and >ou schalt here a litil stance in [>e girdil, and whanne )>ou hast sete, 
>ou schalt digge bi cumpas, and )>ou schalt hile wi)> er[>e Hngis defied out ** (epetta, 
Vulff.) In Arund. MS. 42, f. 70, y^, it is said of orange, that ** some etyn it with hony, 
^wh hony be badde mete, for it is wik to deiyin.** See also Vis. of Piers P. v. 457. 

Digitized by 




On-defowlyd (on-fowlyd, s.) 

ImmacukUtUy incontamincihis, 
Ondoar, or expownare. Expo- 
sitor ^ interpres* 
Ondoare, or djstroyare. De- 

atructoTy dissipaioTy confwor, 
Ondoarb, or opynnare of ikyngys 

schet or closyd (expowndare, s.) 

Ondoon, or dystroyyn. Destruoy 

et alia supra in destroyofi 

(confundoy exterminoy p.) 
Ondon, or expownyii, Exponoy 

interpretor, resero. 
Ondoon, or ondo lokys or spe- 

ryngys (springes, p.) Aperio. 
Ondoynge, or dystroyynge. Dis- 

sipacioy destruccio (confitsioy p.) 
Ondoynge, or expownynge (ex- 

powndjmg, s.) Exposicioy de- 

claracioy interpretacio, 
Ondoynge, or op(y)nynge of 

schettellys, or sperellys (on- 

pynnynge scbettys, s.) Apercio 

(aperidoy p.) 
OoNE EYYD (one eyyle, 8.) Mo- 

noculttSy monotalmusy luscusy 

CATH. et c. F. monoculay lusca. 
Onest. Honestus. 
Oneste. Honestas. 
(Onestly, k. ffoneste.) 
On evyrysydb. Undiquey cir- 

cumquaque (undicumqt^, ubi" 

cunquey p.) 
Onfestyn, idem quod on-losyn 

(idem quod on-solvyn, s.) 
(Onfotyd, supra in ofotyd, k.) 
On-gentyl, supra in oncurteys. 
On-gentylle of kynne. Igno- 

hilisy degenery c. f. ingene- 

rosus; et aUa supra in B. 

On-gentyl be £Eidyr, and moder. 

Ybridusy ug. v. m U. 
On-gylty. Immunisy innocens 

(inculpabiUsy p.) 
On-gracyow8. Ingraciosusy aca- 

risy CATH. vel acharisy c. f. 
OoN handyd (on handyl, s.) 

Mancusy et manccty cath. 
On-hap, or myshappe. Infor- 

tuniumy disfortunium. 
On- HAPPY. Infortunatus, infelixy 

Onehede, or on a-cord (ooned, 

H. p.) Unitas. 
(Onhill YN, K. or oncuryn, supra. 

Discooperioy detego.y 
On-holsum (or on-sety, infraJ) 

On-hurte. lUesus^ 
Ony, or ony tbynge. Ulhts. 
Onyd.^ Unitus. 
Onyn to-gedyr (onyn, or vnyn 

to-geder, p.) Unioy aduno, 
Onynge to-gedyr. t/hioy adu- 

Onyment, or oynement. Ungu- 

Onyone. Sepe. 
On-kynde yn berte (or ongentyl, 

K. p.) Ingratusy acarisy 


On-kyynd, or now3t after cowrs 
of kynde. Innaturalis. 

On-kyndely yn berte. Ingres 
tanter, acaride. 

On-kynde yn kynde, or nature. 

On-kyndely. InnaturaMter. 

> The participle '* oned,'* united, occun in Chancer, Cant. T. t. 7550. Compare 
PUT to-geder, and onyd. Ckmtinuut, 

Digitized by 




On-knowe (onknowyn, k.) Ig- 

notuSf incognitus. 
On-knowyngly. Ignorantevy 

ignote^ insdenter. 
Onlawfulle.* IllegitHmus. 
Onlawfully. niegittime. 
On-leefulle. Ulicitusy nephasy 

On-lefully. Illidtey nepharie, 
On-letteryd. Uliterattis, agra- 

matusy c. F. 

Only. Solomodo. 
On-lysty, or lystles.* Deses, 
O N-M EU ab le. Immohilis. 
On-meu(a)bly. ImmohUiter. 
On-mevyd. Immotu9. 
Onmyghty. Inpotens. 
On-myghtly. Inpotentet'. 
On-numerable. InnumeraJnlis. 
Onnumerably. Innumerahiliter. 

Onpacyent. Inpaciens. 
On-pacyently, . Inpacienter, 
On-powderyd.* Insalsusy cath. 

et c. F. 
On-powderyd, on-saltyd. /n- 

Onprevyn, or imprevyn (in- 

preuyij, h. s. p.) Improbo. 
On-profytable, Inutiiis. 
On-profytably. InutilUer, 
ON-PUNSc(H)YD(onpony88hed, p.) 

ON-PUNSCHYD,or wytbe-owte pun- 

8chy(n)ge. Inpune. 
Pnponysshingly, p.Impunite.) 
^'N-QWELMYN (oDwhelmeD, p.)* 

Desuppino, discooperio. 
On-qwemable.* InplacahilU. 
On-qwemably. InplacabtUter. 
On-repentaunt, Inpenitens. 
On-repentawntly. Inpeni" 

On-ryghtefulle, Infustus. 


1 The proper distinetion is evidentlj made in the Promptoriam between lawful and 
LEFDLLB. Compare lawfullb, legitimut^ p. 289, and lkfullb, or lawfiille, lieitvs, 
p. 393. The etymology of the two words is manifestly distinct, the first being derived 
from Ang.-Saz. lah, lex; the teoond from Ang.-Sax. leaf, permiasio. ** Lawfulle, 
legality licitus. LefuUe, licihu, fmutua. VnlefuUe, illicituty illecebrosus,** cath. 
ANG. " Leffiiinto, to make lawfoll. Legitimta^ bonu»t secundum legem habitut, vel 
faeius, lAcitutt lefull." ortus. By Wicliff this last word is written " leveful,»* 
which approaches more closely to the original orthography, and the distinction is ob- 
senred by the old writers. W. Thorpe, in his examination by Abp. Arundel, 1407, 
stated that he had said that the law of Holy Church teaches in the decrees that no 
senrant ought to obey his lord, child his parent, or wife her husband, " except in lefull 
things and lawfull." This document was published by Tindal from lliorpe*s autograph. 
The same phrase occurs in the Statutes of the Gild of St. Francis at Lynn, 1454, re- 
garding the summons of the fraternity ** in lefull and lawful! tyme." Richards, vol. i. 
478. Palsgrave renders both ** laufuU*' and '* lefull,'' French, ** lieite, loyeibU:' 

« Compare lystt, deleetabilU, p. 307 ; lusty, or lysty, delectuonuy p. 317. Ang.- 
Sax. lystan, velle, cupere ; lystlice, libenter. Hence the negative listless, indifferent, 
having no desire. See owlyst man, Desee. 

* l^e FOWDERON, and powderyd wythe salt, hereafter. 

< This word is placed between onbadeltn and on-wyndyn, as if written on- 
WHBLMTN. Compare ovyr qweluyn, p. 374, turnon, or qwelman, and whblmyk. 

• See avBMTN, or plesyn ; pbbsyd, or qwemyd, &c. Ang..Sax. cweman, placere. 

Digitized by 




On-ryohtefully. Injuste. 
(Onsadddb, as fysche, infra in 

thoke.' Humarorusy cath. et 

UG. insolidus.') 
Onsadelyn hors, or takyn a-wey 

fro hem byrdenys. JbestemOf 


Onsauery. Imwidui. 
Onsaveryly, Iru^nde. 
On-schame-fast. Inpudensyin^ 

verecundusy effrons* 
On-schambfastly. Inpudmiery 

inverecundey effronter. 
On-semely. Jndecensy incanve' 

niensy disconvemens. 
On-sbmely, or yn on-semely 

wyse. IndecenteVy inconvenient 

tevy disconvenienter. 
On-set Y, idem quod on-holsam^ 

supra.^ (Insalubris.) 
On-syghty. Ihvisibilis. 
On-syghtyly. IntfiiibiUter. 
On-syttynge, idem quod on* 

semely, eupra (on-lyldy, s. on- 

sittioge, eupra onsemyDge, T,y 

(Onsittinoly, supra in on- 
semely, p.) 

Onstabyl, Instabilit. 

Onstabylly. Inetabiliter. 

Onstedefast, idem quod vn» 
stabyl, supra. 

Onstedefastnesse. InstahUUas. 

On-sufferabyl, or ontoUerable. 
IntoUerahiUsy insufferabiUs (in^ 
sustentahilisy P.) 

On-sufferably (or intollerably, 
P.) IntoUerabiliier. 

On-tawhte, Indoeiusyinstructus. 

Ontellbable. Inenarrabilis. 

On-thende. InvcUidus* 

On-thendly. InvaUde. 

On-thende, and fowl, and owt 
cast.^ Abfectus. 

Onthryfyn, Devigeo. 

On-th(r)yfte,* Devigencia. 

Onthryfty, idem quod on- 
thende (on-tryfty, s.) 

On-t YDY. Intemptatus{intemptusy 
durisipusy s. intemperatuSy P.) 


* See BAD, or hard. SoUdua. 

s Compare Aog.-Sax. un-nda, prmHtas, vUhmt or un-iit$, iier btfeWe, Tent, 
on-sedigh, male moratMS. 

s Neither the a4jecti¥e, nor the imperaonal yerb titteth, it ia becoming, occor here- 
after in the Promptorinm, but thej are not anfreqnently used by Chancer, Gower, and 
other writers. In TreTisa'i yersion of Vegecina, B. ii. c. 18, it is said that ** it semed 
vnsittyng that he >at shnlde receyne of the Emperonr lyrerey, clothing, and sowde, 
shnlde be occupied in eny o>er office but in the Emperoura werrea.** Roy. MS. XVIII. 
A. 19. ** It sytceth, it becometh, il siet : it sytteth nat for your estate to weare so fjnt 
fnrres.*' palso. 

4 Wrath, in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, v. S8S5, complaining of the austerities 
and discipline to which he was subjected in a monaatery, says, 

" I ete there unthende fisshe, . 
And feble ale drynke.*' 

Mr. Wright explains the word as signifying unsenred, without sauoe. Ang.-Saz. |>enian, 

* The reading of the MS. admits of a slight doubt here, as from the similaiity of 
a. and f. it appears to be OK-THYtTS ; as also in the Winch. MS. on-thryste. 
Compare thrtftb and thrtftt, hereafter. 

CAMD. 80C. 3 B 

Digitized by 




On-trusty (or on-trysty, s.^ 

Insecurus, infidus {infidelis^ p.) 

Infidelitevy insecure^ p.) 
On-trewe. Infidelis. 
On-trewly. Infideliter* 
On- WARE. Incautus. 
On-warly. Incaute. 
On-waschyd. Hlotus. 
On-wyndyn, or on-twynyii (on- 

twyndyn, s.) Detorqueoy cath, 
On-wyse. Insipiens, imprudensy 

inscius (sttiltusy p.) 
On-wysely. Imprudentevy in" 

$ipienter, tnscie. 
On-wytynge. Ignorans. 
On-wytyngly. Ignoranter. 
On-wurthy. Indignus. 
On-wurthyly. Indigne. 
On pylgyrmage («c, opylgry- 

mage, k. n. s. p.) Peregre, 
Opyn, or opnyn. Aperio* 
Opynyone. Opinio. 
Openynge, or ondoynge of schet- 

tynge (opning, vndoynge of J)at 

is sperd, k. undonynge that is 

hyd, p.) Apercio. 
(Opnyng, or expownynge, k. s. 

oppnynge, h. openynge, p. 
(Oposyn, supra in aposen, 

K* H* S* P« 


Opposynge. Opposicio, 
Oppressynge, or ouer ledynge 

(oppressyon, s.) Oppressio. 
Opvn. Apertus (^patulusy p.) 
Opun, fulle knowyii. Manifestus. 
Opunly. Man^este, pcUam. 
Opvn synnare, wythe-owtyn* 

schame. Puplicanusy pupli- 

cana, cath. 
Oratorye. Oratorium. 
(Org herds, supra in appull- 

yerde. Pomerium,) 
Ordeynyd. Ordinaius, consH- 

Ordeynyn. Ordino. 
Ordeynyn, or settyn a tbynge to 

be don. Statuo, constituoy in- 

Ordynawnce, or ordynacyon. 

Ordina^noy constitucioy ordo. 
(Ordyr, s. p. Ordo,) 
OoRE, for rowynge (ore, k. h. p.) 

Orfrey of a westyment^ (vest- 

1 Chaucer uses the verb to appose, signifying to object to, or put to the question ; 
Cant. T. V. 7n9» 15,831. '* I oppose one, I make a tryall of his lernyng, or I laye a 
thyng to his charge, ie apose, I am nat to leme nowe to appose a felowe, d apposer 
ttn gallant,** palso. See Towneley Myst. pp. 193, 195. 

* This term seems to be directly taken from the French wfrau^ or low Latin orfreot 
the band or bordure of embroidery with which rich garments, and especially vestments 
of sacred use, were decorated. Menage supposes it to have been formed from aurum 
Phrt/ffium, attributing to Phrygia the invention of such embroideries. The orfrey was 
originally, but not always, as the name expresses, a work broidered in gold. The most 
remarkable specimens existing in England are the relics of vestments discovered at 
Durham, in the tomb attributed to St. Cuthbert, and wrought by order of Queen 
^Ifleda for Frithelstan, Bp. Winchester, A.D. 905. See the note on the word fanvn', 
p. 149. The skill of the embroiderers and goldsmiths of England from an early period 
had extended their reputation over the Continent. The following statement occurs in 
the Gesta Gul. Ducis Norm, et Regis Angl. p. 211 : " Anglice nationia femine mullum 
€cu et auri texturd^ egregie viri in omni talent artificio,^* In the Chronicle of Casino, it 

Digitized by 



ment, s.) Aurifigiuniy c. f. et 

NECC. aurifi'igium^ glossa Me- 

rarU dicU* 
OrgoneJ Organum. 
Orgonyster (orgaDer, s.) Or- 

gomstOy organicus, orgonicuSf 

-COy -cum, CATH. 

Oroon pype, or pype of an 

orgon'. Cantes, CATH. ^draula, 
BRIT, vocahula musica. 

Orryble. (^H)orridtiSthorribilis. 

Oryel of a wyndowe (of windown*, 
8.y Cancellusy cath. inten- 

diculch KYLW. 

(Oryelle tre, supra in aldyr 
tre.* AlniiSy c. f.) 

appears that the jewelled work termed Anglicum opu9 was, at the commencement of the 
Xlth cent, in high esteem even in Italy (Marat. Script. Ital. It. 360 :) and in the times 
of Boniface VIII. about the year 1300, are mentioned **v. aur\frigia, quorum t(f. 
Jtwnt de opere Cyprenn nobilimmot ei unum est de opere Anglicano, ei unum esi ad 
tmaitos,*^ Lib. Anniv. Basilice Vatic, ap. Joan. Rubens. Among the gifts of Thos. 
Langley, Bp. Durham, who died 1437> were a Testment of crimson veWet, ** easuldt (;'. 
tunieulit, ei eapd principali habtnte orfrays conaimiles auri de Cypryt,''* and other 
Testments of baudkyn, with ** orfrays de baudekyn rubeOy context* cum cervie el avibue 
auri de Vyprys,*^ &c. Wills and In v. Surtees Soc. i. 88. The orfrays seem to have 
been frequently separate, so as to be used at pleasure with the vestment of colour 
suitable to the day. Inventories and wills afford innumerable evidences of the extra- 
ordinary richness of these decorations, and carious information as to the perfection to 
which the arts were carried in England at a remote period. 

I The precise period when the use of the organ was introduced into Britain has not 
been ascertained; it is supposed to have been first used in France in 757. Compare 
Ann. Fr. breves; Ann. Francomm ; and Eginh. Ann. Pepini ; which concur in naming 
that year as the date of the introduction. Eginhard also mentions the arrival in France 
of a priest from Venice, who was able to construct organs, in 836 ; but the instrument 
does not appear to have been generally used in Western Europe before the Xth cent. 
At that period Elphegus, Bp. Winchester, constructed an organ, the melodious sounds 
of which are highly commended in the verses of Wolstan. In the time of Edgar, 
St. Danstan, who died 988, caused ** organa** to be constructed for the church of Glas- 
tonbury, according to Joh. Glaston. ; and in that of Malmesbury, where he bestowed 
*' orffana, ubi per ereae fittulae musicie mensurie elaboratae dudum coneeptae follie 
vomii anxius aurae.** W. Malmesb. Life of Aldbelm, Bp. Shirbum, founder of Malmes- 
bury Abbey. Numerous curious particulars are recorded respecting the use of organs 
in England, as at St. Alban's, in Cott. MS. Nero, D. vii. ; and Croyland, where there 
were *' organa solennia in introitu eeetetie superiue eituata,** as well as smaller organs 
in the choir. Portable instruments, called frequently regals, were much in use, and 
representations occur in many illuminations and sculptures. A very curious repre- 
sentation of the organ exists in Ead wine's Psalter, Trin. Coll. Camb. R. 17, i. and has 
been copied in Strutts Horda, I. pi. 33. Organs vrere imported from Fbnders, as ap- 
pears by the Louth accounts, about the year 1500, Archseol. x. 91 ; the price of a p^ 
suitable to be set up in the rood-loft of that noble church being j^l3. 6«. 9d, It appears 
that the usual term, a pair of organs, has reference to the double bellows whereby con- 
tinuous sound was produced ; or, according to Douce, to their being formed with a 
double row of pipes. See O'Connor's curious observations on the early use of organs 
and psalmody in the Irish church, Hib. Script, iv. 153. 

s ** Est cancelluepro aldpalaciif parvum foramen parietie, intenlicium inter pro. 
pugnacula, muratorumparietes eive tectura, eieui que claudunt chorum. Dieitur et can. 
eellusfeneetra reticulata, Prov. v\j, 6.*' oath. Little can be added to Mr. Hamper's 
curious memoir on Oriels, Archnol. xxiii. in which he explains the varied uses of the term. 

> The ORTBLLB is possibly the small variety of the aUer or alder, given by Parkinson 

Digitized by 



Orynal, or vrynal, UrinaU. 
Orysone. Oracio. 
Orla6£«^ Horilogitmu 

Orlaoerb, or he ))at kepythe an 
orlage (the orlage, p.)* Ho- 
ruspex, vel horispex, cath. 

a« alnu8/blio ineanOf the hoary alder, p. 1409. Mr. Hartshome states that the alder 
is called, on the Herefordshire side, co. Salop, the orl. The alder is called in the North 
eller, whence may be deriyed many names, as EUerbeck, Allerthorpe, &c. '* An ellyrtre, 
alnu$.*' OATH. AMO. *< Ahieium, an allur groonde." ORTut. ** Aulne, an aller, or 
alder-tree." cotg. Ang.-8az. ahr, o/nta. 

* Compare dtale, or an horlege, p. 1^ ; and ptnnb of an orlage, or other lyke 
sehowynge the owrys. SeiotirMM. Hence it seems that oklaos, implying generally an 
indicator of time, signifies here either a snn-dial or a clock. ** An horlege, horologium. 
An horlege lokar, AortM^er.*' oath. ano. " Horologium, an orologe, a clocke. Ho^ 
pMcopus, t, horarum inspector, an orologe maker, or a keper of a clocke.** oktus. 
*' Oriloge, a clocke, Aoriiofft,** palso. In the sense of a dial the term occurs in the 
Wicliffite version, w. Kings, xz. 11 : *' Isaye t>e profete clepide ynwardly )>e Lord, and 
brow^te a^en bacvard by x. degrees |>e schadewe bi lynes, bi whiche it hadde go donn 
|»anne in pe orologie of Achaz." Daines Barrington has given observations on the 
earliest introduction of clocks, ArchnoL v. 416, but could find no instance of an horo^ 
ioffium^ vrhich, being described as striking the hours, was undeniably a clock, and not 
a dial, previously to the construction of the remarkable clock near Westminster Hall, 
supplied out of a fine imposed on Rad. de Hengham, Chief justice of the King*s Bench, 
1288. But there can be little question that clocks were in use at an earlier period. It 
may be doubted whether the ** Orelogium mtigne " given by William the Sacrist to 
Sherborn, in the Xllth cent., were of Uiis nature (Sherborn Cartulary, in the possession 
of Sir Thos. PhiUipps) ; and the horologium, or alarum, the fall of which before the 
hour of matins gave the alarm of the conflagration of the church of Bury, in 1198, as 
described by Jocelin de Brakelonda, p. 78, appears by the context to have been a kind of 
clepsydra. Numerous notices might be collected regarding the orloges of a later time, 
such as that in Canterbury Cathedral, which cost £30, in 1293; and the celebrated 
one given to the Church of St. Alban's in 1326, by Abbot Rio. de Wallingford, which, 
as it is stated, Cott. MS. Nero, D. vii. f. 196, surpassed any other in England, or even 
in Europe, according to Leland, Script. Brit. ii. 401 . A remarkable clock still exists at 
Exeter, generally regarded as the gift of Bp. Courtenay, who was consecrated 1478, but 
it is highly probable that it is the same horohgimn which is named in Pat. 11 Edw. II. 
1317. Frequent mention occurs of '* horologn Begis infra palatium Westm\*' as in 
Pat. 1 Hen. V. in favour of the keeper. Hen. Berton, ** valeetus camere Regit;'* and 
in the Acts of Privy Council, especially in 6 Hen. YI. 1428, vol. iii. 288, where ac- 
counts of repairs done to the ** orelege " may be found, which supply curious terms of 
the craft. Amongst the valuable effects of Hen. V. enumerated 1423, was ** j. orlage, 
faii at manere d*un nitf, P argent preie* par estimation, lx.e,** Rot. Pari. iv. 216. 
Fabyan relates, on the authority of Gaguin, that amongst the presents sent A.D. 807 to 
Charlemagne by the King of Persia *' was an horologe of a clocke of laten of a wonder 
artyfycyall makyng, that at euery oure of the daye and nyghte, when the sayd clocke 
shuld stryke, images on horse backe apperyd out of sondry places, and aftir departid 
agayn by meane of certayne vyces.*' Part VI. c. 156. To such a device Horman seems 
to dlude when he says, f. 231, v®, ** Some for a tryfuU pley the deuyll in the orlege ; 
aiiqui in nugit tragediaa agunt,** It seems, however, certain from the Chron. Turon. 
Martene, Coll. Ampl. V. 960, and Eginh. Ann. Fr. that Charlemagne's "horologe** 
was a ciepeydra. Abp. Parker devised in 1575, to the Bp. of Ely, **bacuhim meum de 
eannd Indied, qui Aorologium habet in summitate,** See Professor Hamberger*8 curious 
dissertation on clocks in Beckman's Hist, of Inventions. 

^ The orlagere seems to have been properly the keeper of a clock, but sometimes a 

Digitized by 



Ornament. Omamentum, 
Oronge, fraetc* Pomum citri- 

nuniy citruniy cath. in medica 

(pomum orientaJef p.) 
Orrowre. Horror, 
Orpud (omwode, s. nc pro orp- 

wodepy Audax^ hellipotens. 
Orpyn, nerbe.* Crassuta major^ 

€t media dicitur howsleek, et 
minima dicitur stoncrop. 
Ortus, releef of beestys mete.^ 
JRamentum^ kylw. ruscum^ 
CATH. et c. F. 

Osage, or ysage. Usw. 
OsYBRE (o8y3er, h. p.) VimeUj 
COMM. vitulameiu 

dock-maker was so called. In the Tenion of Vegecias attributed to Trevisa, Roy. MS. 
18 A. XII. f. 68, directions are given for watch and ward, when an army is encamped, 
especially for the ont*watch by night, *' be whiche must be departede in foore quarters 
of >e nyght, the whiche quarters most be departede by the orlageres {ad cleptydram 
9unt divUa.y* The daily fee of the orlagere of the King's dock at Westminster, 
1 Hen. v. was sixpence ; in 4 Hen. VI. the yearly reward to the clock-maker, besides 
incidental expenses, was 13«. 4d, Acts of Privy Council, vol. iii. The rapid advance of 
civilization and luxury during the reign of Edw. III. induced foreign artificers to settle 
in England, as appears by the Pat. 42 Edw. III. which grants safe conduct for three 
** orlagiers,*' natives of Delft, coming to exercise their craft in England. Rymer, vi. 590. 
I Le Grand d'Aussy, Vie Priv^e des Fran9ais, i. 246, could not trace the introduc- 
tion of the orange to an earlier period than 1333. It is said to have been brought from 
China by the Portuguese, but it is more probable that its introduction into Europe is 
due to the Arab conquerors of Spain. A document preserved in the Tower, and cited 
in the valuable Introduction to Household Expenses in England, presented to the 
Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. records that in 1290 a large Spanish ship arrived 
at Portsmouth, from the cargo of which Queen Eleanor purchased a frail of Seville figs, 
dates, pomegranates, 15 citrons, and '* vij. poma de Orenge.** A full account of the 
properties of this fruit may be jfound in the curious compilation written early in the 
XVth cent. Arund. MS. 42, f. 33, v«. Oranges are mentioned as a present, Paston 
Letters, ii. 30 ; and repeatedly in the Privy Purse Expenses of Hen. VIII. Pynson, 
in the Boke to leme French, gives ** aples of orrenge, pommeg d'orraingneJ* 

* This word, signifying stout, courageous, is used by R. Glouc. Gower, and Lydgate. 

" His folk fhl of orpedschype 

Qnicliche leputh to hepe.*' K. Alls. ▼. 1413. 

Trevisa likewise, in his version of the Polychron. speaks of '* an orped man, and stall- 
worth." The epithet is applied to hounds in the Master of Game, Cott. MS. Yesp. 
B. XII. f. 63, b. Dowglas, the monk of Glastonbury, in his Chronicle, Harl. MS. 
4690, speaks of the conflict of Edw. III. with the Normans in 1347, '* atte the brigge 
of Cadon, manly and orpedly strengthed and defended," f. 82 ; and again, in his re- 
lation of the hasty expedition of Edw. III. to Calais, 1350, says that " he towke wi)> 
him >e nobleis, and )4 gentelles, and o>er worH andorpedde menne of armes,*' f. 83, V*, 
See also Caxton*s Chron. f. 37 ; Heame's Glossary to Rob. Glouc. ; and Jamieson, 
V. Orpit. Compare Aug.- Sax. orpedlice, palam^ somn. 

« ** Aeantutt Ang/iee, orpyne.*' Hari. MS. 1002. Gerarde gives Cranula majors 
Spanish orpyne ; Crastula/abaria, common orpyne, liblong, or livelong. This herb 
was called also in French orpin. ** Orpyn, an herbe, orpin,** palsg. Skinner would 
derive the name from Belg. oor p&ne, aurium dolors in allusion to its narcotic properties. 

* ** OrtjSt/orraffO, ruteus, or fodder." cath. ano. The word orts, fragments of 
victuals, which occurs in Shakespeare, is still vulgarly used in many counties : in the 
9pnth it is pronoooced anghts. See Uie Salopian and Craven Glossaries, and Nares. 

Digitized by 




OsPYTALLB. Hospitaley zeno- 

dochiumy vel cenodochiumy 

CATH. orphanotrnphium. 
OsPRYNGE, of k3mred, idem quod 

kynrede, supra in K. (ospringe 

or kenrede, k. or kyndrode, s. 

Progenies, prosapioj stirps.) 
OosT of menne. Excerdtus. 
OosT, geste. Hospes. 
OosT, sacrament. Hostia (sa^ 

cramentuniy p.) 
OosTAOB, or plegge (as a wedde, 

infircu) Obses, c. F. vas, cath. 

OsTEL, or inne of herborowe (in, 

or herborwe, k. s. of harborowe, 

p.) Hospiciumy diversorium, 

hospicianumy comm. 
OsTBLERE. Hospiciariusy hospi- 

ciariay hospes (hospitch p.) 
OosTEssE (osteles, s.) Hospita, 


OsTRYCHB, byrd. Strucioy c. f. 
Otb, or bavur come.' Avena. 
0th E, of swerynge. Juramentum. 
OoTHB, or woode.^ Amensy de- 

mensy Juriosusy Jurihundus. 
Otur, watyr beest. Lutricius, 
Owe dette. Deheo. 
OvENE. Fumusy fomaxy cU- 

OwHTE, or sumwbat (ovt, h.) 

Quicquam, quid, adverbia. 
OwYNE, as myne owyn* (owne, p.) 

OvYR. Uliroy trans. 
OvYRAL. Ubiquey utrobique, 
OvYR CASTE, or ovyr hyllyd. 

Pretectusy contectus. 
OvYRCUMME (or ovyT settyn, 

infra,y Supero. 
Ovyr hyppyn, or oner skyppyn, 

or passe a-wey, and levyii.^ 


> " Avena, otys or havere." mbd. ms. cant. " Otys, ubi haver. Havyr, avena, 
avenula,** cath. ang. In the Memoriale of Henry, Prior of Canterbury, early in the 
XlVth cent. Cott. MS. Galba, E. iv. ♦*a?cre** occurs in the **redditu» manerium 
Prioraitu,** f. 165, t**. It is repeatedly mentioned in documents connected with the 
North Country ; see Wills and Invent. Surtees Soc. i. pp. 244, 423. W. Turner, in 
his Herbal, 1551, remarks that ** Avena is named in Englyshe otes, or etes, or hauer, 
in Dttche hauer, or haber.*' Gerarde gives haver as the common name for oats in 
Lancashire, and observes that it is " their chiefest bread come for lannocks, Hauer- 
cakes, Tharffe-cakes," &c. The Feetuca Italica has, as he says, the common name 
** Hauer-grasse.*' *' Aveneron {averon, or avoinfolle) wild oats, barren oats, haver, or 
oat grass." coto. In the North, oats are still called haver, according to Brockett and 
the Craven Glossary, but the name seems to be no longer known in the Eastern counties. 
Hence, however, appears to be derived Haver-croft Street, the name of a hamlet near 
Attleborough, Norfolk. Dan. havre, Dutch, haver, Swed. hafre, oats. 

» Compare Germ. Wuth, iras w{lthig,/tirton«; Welsh, gwyth, anger. 

s OvYRCUNB, MS. ovyrcomc, s. 

4 Compare hyppynob, p. 241 ; Low German, hippen, satire, Langtofb has pre- 
served a '* Couwe," or satirical ballad on Baliol, and the conquest of the Scots by 
Edw. I. in which the verb *' ouerhipped*' is used, ed. Heame, p. 280; and again, 
p. 296: 

" Oure kyng Sir Edward ouer litille he gaf, 
Tille his barons was hard, ouerhipped Him ouerhaf." 

R. Brunne, in the Prologue to his Chronicle, as cited by Heame, Langt. Chron. App. 

Digitized by 




Ovy(r) hyppynge, or ovyr 
skyppynge, or levynge (over 
chyppynge, s.) Omissio. 

OvYRLEDARE (or ovyr settar, 
infra.y Oppressor, 

Ovyr ledyn, or oppressyn. Op- 

Ovyr ledynge (or oppressynge, 
supra.) Oppressio, 

Ovyr lethyr of a schoo (ouer- 
ledyr, h.) Impedkh i>icc. et 


OvYRLY. Superficialiter* 
Ovyrlytyl(l)e. Minus, vel 

nimis modicunu 
OvYRLEVARE after a noJ>er. 

Ovyr mykylle (ouer moche, p.) 

Nimis, vel nim(i)us* 

Ovyr more. Ultra, preterea, 

OvYRPLAw.2 Ebullido. 
Ovyr settar, idem quod ouer 

ledare, supra, 
Ovyr settyn, or ovyr comyn.' 

Supero, vinco. 
Ovyr settyn, or dyscomfytyn. 

(OuERSETTiNGE, P. Oppressio.) 
Ovyr settynge, or ovyr syt- 

tynge of dede or tyine. Omissio. 
(Ouer skyppyn, supra in ovyr 

hyppyn. Omitto.) 
Ovyr throwyn, and caste doon. 

Ohruoy prostemo. 
Ovyr (tyr)vyn (ovyr tyrvyn, 

K. ouertumyn, s. h. ouyrturuyn, 

p.)^ Subverto, everto. 

to Preface, p xcviii. states that he had followed Wace's original more closely than 
Peter Langtoft had done ; 

** For mayster Wace )^ Latyn alle rymes, 
)>at Pers oaerhippia many tymes." 

The verb ** oyerhuppe,** to skip over, occurs in Vis. of Piers P. v. 8167, and 10,395. 
Gower uses ** overhippeth *' in a like sense ; it occurs also in writers of the XVIth Cent. 
See Fryth's Works, p. 17 ; Udal, Hcbr. ell. "I overhyppc (or ouerskyp) a thyng 
in redyng, or suche lyke, ie irespatte. I overhyppe, le irespatse, and ie paste. Loke 
yon ouerbyppe {surpatsez) notbyng, remember that the thynge that is well doone is 
twyse done, and the thyng that is yuell done muste be begon agayne.** palsg. Howell, 
in the Grammar prefixed to Cotgrave^s Diet. 1660, obserres that " the reason why the 
French o*re hips so many consonants is, to make the speech more easie and flnent.*' 
To hip, signifying to hop, is still used in the North. See Brockett and Jamieson. 

1 This verb is used in Vis. of Piers P. v. 2001 ; and by Lydgate, Boccace, v. 104, as 
quoted by Mr. Halliwell in his Glossary, Coventry Mysteries, in which it occurs also in 
the like sense of over-reaching, or over-bearing, p. 263. To lead, as it has been ob- 
served p. 293, was used in the sense of carrying, as by Rob. Glouc. p. 416, ** lede and 
brynge," where he speaks of loaded wains passing frozen streams during the severe 
winter, A.D. 1092. To over-lead appears to be tsScen in the same manner as to carry 
and to bear are used, denoting behaviour or demeanour. Palsgrave gives the verb " I 
overley, as a tyr&ne, or myghty man ouerlayeth his subiectes, declared in I oppresse.'' 

s See PLAWYN ovyr, hereafter. 

• Sybttyn, MS. ouersettyn, k. ovyr settyn, s. " I oversette, I overcome, declared 
in I ouercome, I vaynquysshe or get the vper hande of one." palsg. 

4 A blank space has been here left by the scribe, the first syllable of the word 
TYUVYN being apparently defective in the MS. from which the transcript was made. 
TBRWYN occurs hereafter in the sense of to weary, /a/^o ; but it seems very question- 

Digitized by 




OvYRTHWERT (ouerqweitly, k. 

ovyr wharte, s. ouerthwart, p.)' 

Ovyrthwer(t)ly (ouerqwertly, 

K.) Transverse, 
Ovyr qwelmyd, or ouer hyllyde.^ 

Ovyr qwblmyn, or qwelme 

(ouerwhelmyn, p.)* Suppino. 
Ovyrslay of a doore.^ Super* 


OwLE, or howle, byrde. Bubo, 


OwLYST.* Desidiosusj segnis (je* 

diosusy 8.) 
OwLYST MAN, Of womann (ow- 

list, or ynl(u)8ty, k.) Deses. 
OwLYSTHEDE. Dcsidioj segntcUs. 
OwM AWTYN,or 8wownyn'(80wnyii, 

8.)^ SincopisOf c. f. 
0(w)mawtynge (or swow* 

nynge, p.) Sincopis. 

able, notwithstanding that the King's Coll. MS. agrees with the Haii. MS. in the 
reading, ttrvtn, whether the scribes may not inadvertently have taken n. for n. and 
the tme reading should be ovtr tyrntn. Compare turnom vpse doune, subvtrto. 

> Chancer uses over-thwart in the sense of across, and of over against. SeeTowneley 
Myst. p. 85, ** over twhart, and endlang.*' *' Ouertwharte, au traven de^ de trauer^, 
as, Et toudayn il Ivy myt Petpie au trauers du carps, 11^ iont corrige^ ds long et de 
trauers. Onerthwartly, paruersement,** palso. Forby gives overwhart, across, as to 

5 lough overwhart, or at right angles to the former fnrrows. Higins, in his version of 
unios, renders " TrtoMtra^ the transams, or onerthwart beames.** A.-Saz. )>weorh, 
Dan. tvKft, peroersus. 

' s Skinner supposes whelm to be derived from Ang.-Saz. ahwylfon, obmere. Compare 
also hwealfian, eamerare. Chancer uses the verb to over-wbelve, as in Boec. ii. wnere 
he speaks of the North wind which ** moneth boiling tempeste, and ouerwhelueth the 
see ; verso coneitat €sqvore,** Fabyan, ann. 1429, describes a barge, which, running 
against the piers of a bridge, was **whelmyd;'* but here, as in other passages, it is 
difficult to define whether the precise meaning of the word be to overturn, or to cover 
over. '* I whelme an holowe thyng ouer an other thyng, le mets dessus. Whelme a 
platter vpon it to sane it Aromflyes.'* palsg. '* No bodie lighteth a candle, and hideth 
it in a priuie derke comer, or conereth it by whelming a bushell ouer it.** Udal, Luke 
id. 33. " To whelve, vide cover.*' gouldm. Compare ON-auKLicYN, p. 366. 

s Compare turnok, or qwelm&n. Suppino, R. Brunne, in his version of Langtoft, 
p. 190, relating how King Richard smote a Soudan such a blow on the helm that he 
fell backwards, and was unhorsed, says '* )^ body he did onerwhelm, his hede touched 
^ croupe.** ** I wyll nat curse the, but an olde house ouerwhelme the, ie puisse 
renuerser, or ragrauanter,** palso. 
4 The following passage occurs in Gaut de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 2S0 : 

'* Al tntri del Kms est la lyme (the therswald, al, threshwald,) 
Bi outre la teste la suslyme (the ouerslay.)'* 

In SirThos. Phillipps*s MS. " ouerslauth;" in Femina, MS. Trin. Coll. Camb. B. 14, 
40,, ** le 8uislyne—\fe ouerchek." " Siqierlimmare, ouersby." Vocab. Harl. MS. 17 
C. *xvir. ** Superliminare, ouer lytys.*' mbd. Horman says, '* I hytte my heed 
ageynst the soyle, or transumpt (A^ierMyron, superliminare,y* 

* Compare onltstt. Deses. 

See Jamieson's observations on Muth, exhausted with fatigue, Mawten, and Mait. 
These words may be derived from Fr. mater, *' I mate, or onercome, He hath vtterly 
mated me, anuM.** palso. Compare Tent. mstt,/essus; A.-S. me^iSt de/atigatus. 

Digitized by 




OwMBRER of bacenet (owmbrere 

of basnet, k. h. vmbrere, or 

basnette, s. owmbrer' or a basnet, 

p.)* Umbraculufiu 
OwMPERE, supra in nowmpere.^ 

(Arbitevy sequestei*.) 
(Ow(n)ere of a schyp, or schyp- 

lord, infra? Navarchusy cath. 

navargusy c. f.) 
OwRE of the day, or nyghte. Hora, 
OwRE owENE. Noster. 
OwTAS, crye.^ TumuUus, c. f. 
OwTE CASTE, or refuse. Rejuta- 

men, rejutamentum (abfecHu, s .) 
OwTE CASTE, or refxise, or cora- 

lyce of come (coralys, s. careyle 

of come, p,y Crtbalunij c. f. 
OwT, or owte (sic, s.) Extra, 


Owte, owt. At^ a/, hiierjectio* 
OwT, or qwenchyd, as candy lie, or 

•lyghte. Exthichis* 
Owte gate. Eritus. 
OwTYNGE, or a-woydaunce. Eva* 

cuacio, deliberacio- 
Owte law. Exlejr, c. p, utk- 

gatus (exuly relegatus^ s.) 
OwTLAWYN. l/ilego, €j*terminnf 

UG. V. in T. secimdmn scrip- 

turas cartarum^ 
OwTLAWRY. Udegado^ e.rter- 

miniuniy UG. v. in T. (ej- ilium j 

UG. V. in T, relegueio^ s,) 
Owt ERA GE, or exces&e^ Exeesms^ 
OwTRAGYN, or dodn eiscesse- 


OwTE TAKYN (oWtakjII, K,)^ 


1 « An OTmbere, umi^a." cath. ano. In the relation given by Stowe of tlie cotnbftt 
in Smithfield before Henry VI. 1443, between John de Astiey (whom he ealts Annley or 
Antsley) anda knightof Arragon, it is related that the latter with hia axe *' stroke 
many strokes hard and sore vpon his basenet, and on his hand, and made him loose nnd 
let fidl his axe to the ground, and brast vp his vmbar three tima^t ^d caught It is 
dagger, and wonld bane smitten him in the face.'' Annales, p. 383, t^d, 16:^1. lo the 
SurTay of London, B. iii. this word is misprinted '* brake up his tiTkiber.^' From tbt^ 
passage it seems to be evident that the owmbrer was a defence that cohered the fae^e, 
but it is not clear in what respect it differed from the visor, with which in previous 
times the basinet had been furnished, when used without the tilting Uclm. ** Umbrdl 
of an heed pece, uisUre,^* valso. 

3 See Tyrwhitt*s Glossary, v. Nompere ; Chaucer, Test, of Love, i, 3 1 9. It occurs also 
in Vis. of Piers P. v. 3149, signifying an arbitrator. ** An ovmper, im/jar.'^ cath. ano. 

3 In the other MSS., as likewise in the printed editions, this word is written ownf;r< 
It must be observed, however, that the verb to owe, A.- Sax. asan, pf^mdme, now 
written own, occurs very frequently. Bp. Hall speaks of the Deity as *' the great 
ower of heaven.** Sermon at Exeter, Aug. 1637. 

^ R. Brunne, in his version of Langtoft's Chron. p. 339, relates how Sir John de 
Walels, being taken prisoner, was hung at London : 

** Si)>en lete him doun eft, and his hede of snyten, 
And born to London brigge fulle hie with outhcys." 

'* Yet saw I woodnesse laughing in his rage. 
Armed complaint, outhees, and fiers outrage.** Cant. Talcs, v. iOH 

''God graunte— y' an outas and clamour be made upon the Lord Scales.*' Paston 
Letters, vol. iii. 136, circa 1450. See Ducange, and Spelman, v. Hutegiumt Huwum. 

* See CORALLB, or drasse of come (draffe ?) p. 92. 

* See Langtoft's Chron. Hearne, p. 333. In the Wicliffite version ^ Exod. xxii. ^ is 

CAMD. see. 

3 c 

Digifized by 






OxE, beest. Bos, 
OxEFORTHB. Oxofiia, 
0)>YR, or oihyr.* AUuSy alter. 
OJ>YR TYME. Alias. 

Pace, of goynge. Passus. 
Pace forthe. Preterio, pro- 

( Pass A ge ouer a water, s. Vadurth 


Pacyence, or sufferaunce. Pa- 
ciencia, suffhrencioy tollerancia. 
Pacyence, nerbe. Paciencia, 
Pacyent of sufferynge. Paciensy 

suffer ensy toUeransy animequius, 


Pacyn (in godnesse, k. h. p.) 

ExceUoy preceUo. 
Pacyn yn goodnesse, or badnesse. 

Excedoy superemineo. 
Pacyn ovyr. Transgredior, 

Pacyn ouer Jjc see, or watyr.^ 

TransfretOy transmeo. 
Pacyn, yn waJkynge, or goynge be 

the wey (supra in pace forthe, 

p.) JPreterioy cath, 
Paddok, toode.5 Bujb. 

thus rendered : *' He Ht offnb to goddis, oatakun to ^ Lord aloone, be tlayn (prtB- 
ierquam Domino,** Vulg.) Chaucer oses ** out take " in like manner, Rom. of Rose ; 
and ** out-taken/' excepted, Cant. T. v. 4697 ; as likewise does Sir John Manndevile, 
Voiage, p. 301. In the account of a scandalous assault which occurred in the reign of 
Hen. Vl. Rot. Pari. V. 1 1 1. it is said, ** He ▼ilanously toke of all the attire of her hed, 
also her dothis of her body, otake her smokke." '' 1 out take, I except. I wyll ron 
as swyft as any man in this towne, I out take none, for a bonette, le n'exeepte nui. 
Out takyng, exception, I outcept, ie exeepie,** &c. palso. 

1 OxHYn, or othyr, us. OMr, k. 0|>er, or othyr, 8. Other, p. The alpha- 
betical position shows that th. has here been substituted by the second hand for the 
character )>. as likewise in the succeeding word, which in the MS. is written OTHTa 
TTMB. >. always occurs in the penultimate place, as in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet 

3 In Pynson's edition the following distinction is here made : Pace ouer the see. 
TVan^freto, Pace oner water. Tranemeo, ** I passe, I go oner, or passe for by, ie 
paste, Wylte thou beare me in hande I sawe hym nat to daye, he passed forby euyn 
nowe, il passa par icy, I passe my boundes, I ouer esteme myselfe, ie me surcuydCt 
and ie me mescongnoye.** palso. 

3 The strange diet of the natives of Taracounte, in India, is thus described : 

" Evetis, and snakes, and paddokes brode. 
That heom thoughte mete gode.'* Kyng Alis. ▼. 6126. 

« Pade/* a toad, Awntyrs of Arthnre, ix. 10, is in one MS. written '< tade.*' See also 
Syr Gaw. and Sir Gal. i. 9. In the later Widiffite Tersion the frogs Uiat came iq> on 
the land of Egypt, Exod. Tiii. 6, are called << paddockis.'* See Cot. Myst. p. 164, 
and Glossary ; Towneley Myst. p. 325. " Paddocke, crapavlt. My bely crowleth 
(crouUe) I wene there be some padockes in it (arenouiUes.) '* palso. **B^fo, 
crapaut, a Tode, a paddocke." Junius, Nomencl. by Higins. <' OrenouHle^ a frog, a 
paddocke.*' coto. '*A paddock, rana pagana,*^ gouldm. See Nares. Argent, a 
fess between three frogs rert, is borne by the name of Paddock. This word £u not 
been noticed by Forby ; Moor gives Paddock and Pudduck, signifying a toad, in Suffolk, 
and Ray gives it as a word used in Essex. Brockett states tlut in the North it denotes 
a frog, and is never applied to a toad. See Jamieson, v. Pade, a toad. Hence is de- 
rived the old name for a toad-stool, still in use in the North, according to Brockett. 
" A padokstole, boletus, J^ngnt, tuber, trutca, atperagus,^* cath. ano. Gerarde 

Digitized by 




Page. Pcigetaypedissequusy pedesy 

Page of a stabylle. Equaritu^ 

Pa GENT.* Pagina («c, s. p.) 

Patch E, or clowt sett on a thyiige 
(pahche, k. pacch, s. patche 
clowte, sett to a thinge, p.) 
Scrutum, pictaciufny c. f. 

Pay, or payment. Solucio. 

Pay A RE, Solutory solutrix. 

Payare of hyrys, or mony vnder 

a lorde. Mercedarius, cath. 
Payyd, of dette. SoltUus, per^ 

Payyd, and qvemyd, or plesyd, 

Payyn. Solvoy persolvo. 
Payle, or mylke stoppe. Mul- 

traUy multrumy vel multray 

(Payment, idem quod pay, k.) 

calls Fungi " paddock stooles." In the Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1003, f. 144, y<», 
boletus \b rendered " a padokchese/' as likewise in a list of herbs, MS. Ant. Soc. 101. 
**• Fungus, a stede stole.'' iced. Ang.-Sax. pada, biifbt Teat, padden-stoele, boletus. 

1 Skinner suggests that pageant may be derived from the Greek nay<o, nrjyfia, or 
** Belg. Waeghen, curruSf q. d. cumts pompatieus,** Tooke considers it to be the 
pres. part, peceand, of the Ang.-Sax. verb psecan, decipere, to illude by simulated re* 
presentations. The primary signification of the word appears to have been a stage or 
scaffold, which was called po^tna, it may be supposed, from its construction, being a 
machine eompaginata, framed and compacted together. The curious extracts from the 
Coventry records given by Mr. Sharp, in his Dissertation on the Pageants or Mysteries 
performed there, afford definite information on this subject. The term is variously 
written, and occasionally " pagyn, pagen," approaching closely to the Latin pagina. 
The various plays or pageants composing the Chester mysteries, each of which is ap- 
propriated to one of the trades, are entitled, " Pagina prima, de eeli, angelorum, 8fe. 
ereacion{e). The tanners' play. Incipit Pagina secunda, qualiter Deus creanit mundum, 
^c. The drapers* playe ;" and so forth. See Chester Plays, Wright's edition from 
Add. MS. 10,305. A curious contemporary account has been preserved of the con- 
struction of the pageants at Chester during the XVIth cent. " which pagiants weare a 
high scafold with 2 rowmes, a higher and a lower, upon 4 wheeles.'' Sharp, Cov. 
Myst. p. 17. The term denoting the stage whereon the play was exhibited subse- 
quently denoted also the play itself; but the primary sense, clearly defined by the 
Coventry documents, is observed by several writers, as by Higins, in his version of 
Junius's Nomenclator, 1585. ** Pegma, lignea maehma in altum edueia, tabulaiis 
etiam in sublimi ereseentibus eompaginata, de loco in heum portatilis, out qua vehi 
potest, ut in pompis fieri solet: Bsehtffaut, a»pageant, or scaffold." ** Pegma est 
machina super quam statue ponuntur" oktus. " A paiande, lusorium,** cath. ano. 
** Pagiant in a plave, mgstSre,** palso. *' Fereules, the thing whereon images or 
Pageants are carried ; also beers for dead men. Pegmate, a stage or ft^me, whereon 
Pageants be set or carried.** goto. Horman says, *' There were v. coursis in the feest, 
and as many paiantis in the pley. I wyll haue made v. stag) (sic) or bouthis in this playe 
{seenas.) I wolde haue a place in the middyl of the pley {orchestra), that I myght se 
euery paiannt Of ail the crafty and subtyle paiantis and pedis of warke made by 
mannys wyt, to go or mone by them selfe, the clocke is one of the beste.*' In this 
passage the term seems to be taken as denoting stage machinery. Of the gorgeous 
pageants set up by the citizens of London on occasions such as the reception of the 
Emperor Charles V. 1522, detailed descriptions have been preserved by Hall, the 
Chronicler. See on this subject Collier's Hist, of Dram. Poetry, ii. 151, and the 
Appendix to Davies's Municipal Records of York, 8vo. 1843. 

Digitized by 




Paynmayne.* Pants vigoris. 
Paynyn (paynim, k. p.) Pa- 

ganusy pagana, gentiUs. 
Paynyn, or hethyn. JSthnicus, 
Pakke. Sarcinayfardellus. 
Pakkyn. SarcinoyfardeUo (in^ 

dorso, s.) 
Pale, of coloure. Pallidus. 
Pale, or palys of a parke. Palus 

(vallus, p.) 
Palle, or pelle, or other clothe 

leyd on a dede hody ^on a dede 

mane, or woman, s.) Capu- 

lare, uo. in capio. 
Pale, for vynvs. Pojnlltu, comm. 
Pa LEYS, loordys dwellynge. Po- 

Pa l e n es s e, of colowre. Pallor. 
Pa LET, or roof of the mowthe. 

Pa LET, armowre for the heed.^ 

Pellirisy cath. galerus, cath. 

> Various conjectares have been made on the orijpn of this term, derived by Skinner 
from panit matuiinutf by Tyrwhitt from Maine, the province where it might have been 
made, perhaps, in great perfection, and by Sibbald from pain d'amand, almond bread. 
Mr. Pinkerton explains it as signifyiog the chief bread, the bread of main, or strength. 
It is called " breid of mane,'* Dunbar, Maitl. Poems, p. 71 ; and '*mayne bread '* in 
Sir John Neville's accounts of the expenses of his daughter's wedding, 1526 ; Forme 
of Cury, p. 180, where the item also occurs '* 6 doz. Manchetts, 6«.*' It would hence 
appear that Jamieson's conjecture that bread of mane and manchet-bread are synonymous 
is questionable. Kilian gives Teut. " Maene, t. wegghe, Hbum lunaium. Wegghe, 
panii iritieeuSf Hbum oblongumJ'* ComparewTGOB,brede, hereafter. The derivation 
is obscure, but the term clearly denotes bread of a superior quality ; thus Chaucer uses 
the simile '* white as paindemaine," Sire Thopas, Cant. T. t. 13,635 ; Gower also 
speaks of ^* paindemaine " as a delicacy fit for the rich alone. Conf. Am. vi. In the 
Anturs of Arlher at the Tarnewathelan, it is said that 
*• Thre soppus of demajrn 

Wos brojte to Sir Gauan, 

For to comford his brayne." St. 37, ed. Robson. 

The Harl. MS. 279, f. 10, supplies instructions for the preparation of snch consolatory 
sops. *' Lyode Soppes. Take mylke an boyle it, and l^anne tak jolkys of eyroun, 
ytryid fro )>e whyte, an draw hem ^orwe a straynonre, and caste hem in to J^e mylke, 
an sette it on )>e fyre, an bete it, but let it nowt boyle, and stere it vryl tyl it be som 
what l^ikke ; )>enne cast )>er to salt and augre, an kytte fay re paynemaynnys in round 
soppy s, an caste l^e soppys )>er on. and serue it forth for a potage.'* In the Forme of 
Cury repeated mention occurs of "flour of payndemayn," probably the fine white 
flour of which it was made; see pp. 27, 30. The delicacy called **cry8pes" was 
composed thereof, p. 73 ; and ** payndemayn" itself is mentioned, pp. 34, 65. The 
Issue Roll of Exch. 27 Hen. VI. 1449, records the payment of j^lO to John Eton, 
baker of " paynman " for the King's table, in consideration of good services, and the 
great charge incurred by him in providing bread for the Sovereign. It appears also 
that in 1455, in the Household of Hen. YI. there were, in the Office of the Bake- 
house, one " Yoman Pay (n)men -baker," and a groom. Household Ordin. published 
by Ant. Soc. p. ♦IQ. •* Payne mayne, payn de bouche,** palso. " Payn de bouche, 
as Pain molUi, A very light, very crusty and savory white bread, full of eies, leaven, 
and salt.'* cotg. 

3 A PA LET was a kind of head- piece, usually formed of leather or euir-bouiiU, whence 
the name seems to have been derived. ** Pelliris, galea ex coreo et peile.*^ oath. 
** PelliriSf a helme of lethyn Galerus, a coyfe of lethere." m bd. In Yocab. Roy. MS. 

Digitized by 



Palfrey. Palqfridusy mannus^ 
CATH. c. F. gradarius, cath. 

Paly of brynne (payly, or brynne, 
8.)* Cantabrum. 

Palyce, or pale of closjmge. 

Pallyd, as drynke (palled, as 
ale, K.) Emortuus, c. f. 

Pal YET, lytylle bed. Lectica^ c. f. 

Pallyn, as ale aud drynke (ale 
or other licoure, p,y Emo- 

17 C. XVII. f. 56, yS ifl given " Csitw, palette.** CharpeDtier likewise cites a Glos- 
sary, MS. Reg. Paris, which gives *' peliuritf heaume de cuir ou depeU* Palet appears 
to have been a term adopt^ from the French: ** palet: Morie d'armure de titeJ*' 
RoauBF. It is not evident whether there was any distinctive difference between the 
palet and the kettle-hat. Compare kbtyllb hat, PelUris, galenu, p. 273. Minot, 
alluding to the battle of Cressy, in a poem written about 135^, tells the Frenchman, 
*' Inglis men sail ^it to-aere 

Knok thi palet or thou pas.** Poems, p. 31. 
Possibly the word may here, as Ritson and Jamieson explain it, imply the scull ; it is 
so used by Skelton, who makes Elinour Rumming threaten her garrulous customers 
with broken ** palettes,** v. 348. In the Inventory of armour and effects of Sir Edw. 
de Appelby, 48 Edw. III. 1374, are these entries : '* 7/em, j. basenet, cum aduentayle, 
prec* ij. fnarc\ Item^ ij. ketelhattes, et ij. paletes, ^r«c* vj.«. viij. <f.'' Sloane charter, 
xxzi. 2. CharpeDtier cites a document, dated 1382, which describes a knight as '* amU 
d*un hauOergeon d'acier, un palet eneamallU aur ta teste.*' In the curious Inventory, 
in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, of the effects of Sir Simon Burley, beheaded 
1388, occur, under the head " Armour pur la guerre, j. paller {He) de aster: j. palet 
de quierboylUf eoueri de etakee blanc et vert.'* The Stat. 20 Ric. II. 1396, enacts that 
no person shall ride armed, by night or day, *' ne parte palet, tie chapelfe de ferre, 
n*aulre armuret** rendered in the English version ** sallet, nor skull of iron.** Stat, of 
Realm, ii. 93. In the Kalend. of Exch. iii. 309, the following remarkable example of 
the palet is mentioned, 22 Ric. II. 1398. " Une corone d*or d*E$paignef ^e. J. palet 
d*or d'Espaigne, qe poise en nobles^ ccce. xx. li. gam' ove gross* baleys, perles, Sfc, 
y. Jowes pur mesme le palet, gamis* ove saphirs, Sfc. j. gross' saphirSf baleys et perles 
en le couwer du d'ce* palet ; xxxvj. perles en iij. batons, et ij. claspes pur mesme le 
palet.'* The entire value was estimated at ;f 1708. It does not appear whether these 
costly items were royal gifts from Spain, or merely of Spanish workmanship. In the 
curious extract from the MS. version of Clariodes cited by Sir Walter Scott, notes to 
Sir Tristrem, fytte 1, it is said that amongst the various fashions of head-pieces some 
will have '* a pryckynge palet of plate the cover.'* The list of military stores at Hadlegh 
Castle, in the grant by Hen. IV. in 1405, to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, comprises 
" doublettes, jakkes, basynettes, vysers, palettes, aventailles,*' &c. "A palet coverd 
wyth rede velvet ** is mentioned in the bequest of armour by Sir Wm. Langford, 1411. 
Sarum Registers. In 1450 the proclamation of Hen. VI. forbade all men to bear armour 
or arms, as **palettos, loricas,** &c. Rymer, xi. 262. 

' Compare brbn, or bryn, or paley, p. 49 ; and syvbdts, or brynne, or palyys. 
This word is to be traced to Lat. palea, ** Paille, chaffe, the huske wherein com lieth.*' 


2 '* Palde, as ale, drfruetus.'* oath. ang. Lydgate says, in the Order of Fools, 
** Who forsakith wyne, and drjrnkithe ale pallid, 
Suche foltisshe foolis, God lete hem never the !'* 

Harl. MS. 2251, f. 303. 
** I palle, as drinke or bloode dothe, by longe standyng in a thynge, te appallys. This 

Digitized by 



Palmare, or pylgryme. Pere^ 

grinusy et peregrina, 
Palme. Palma. 
(Palme of wulle, or loke^ 9upra* 


Palsye. ParaiiaUy paracUsisk 
Paltok.* Baltheus. 
Pankake. Laganum^ c. f. 
Pane, or parte of a thynge (party, 
v,y Pagina (pars, p.) 

drinke wyll pall (t'appallyra) if it stande vncoaered all nyght. I palle, I fade of fresbe- 
nesse in colour or beautye, iefiaitris.** palso. Id the Customs of LoDdoo, Arnold's 
Chron. p. 85, are given articles desired hj the commons of the city, sach as that the 
Mayor and coancil should enact that all barrels of ale and beer be filled quite full, 
"after thei be leyde on the gyest; for by reason that the vessels haue not been full 
afore tyme, the occupiers haue had gret losse, and also the ale and byere haue palled, 
and were nought, by cause such ale and Mere bathe taken wynde in spurgyng." In 
the version of Beza*s Sum of the Christian Faith, by R. Fyll, Lond. 1572, f. 134, it is 
observed of the usage of the Church of Rome, " It is meruaile that they doe not 
reserue — the wine as well as the breade, for the one is as precious as the other. It 
were out of order to saye they feare the wine will eger, or waxe palled, for they hold 
that it is no more wine.** 

1 It is worthy of remark that Baltheus, which usually denotes a belr, or arming- 
girdle, seems to be taken in the Promptorium in the sense of a close-fitting or closely 
girt garment, such as was used first under armour of mail, or of plate, to bear off the 
weight, and preserve the skin from being chafed, and subsequently in the place of 
armour. Compare cote armure, p. 95 ; dobbelet, p. 1S4 ; and iakkb of defence, 
p. 256 ; all of these being rendered Baltheus. Sir Roger de Norwico bequeaths, in 
1370, ** ttittfm paltoke de veluete cum armitmeU; unumpar de platie, eoopertum cum 
rubeo veluet,'* &c. Harl. MS. 10 ; Transcripts from Norwich Registers. Mention occurs 
of the ** paltok,** in Vision of Piers P. v. 12,122 ; 14,362 ; in both passages as a gar- 
ment of defence. Camden, in his Remains, in the chapter on apparel, cites a history 
called Eulogium, which seems to have been written about A.D. 1400, and mentions, 
amongst extravagant fashions used by the commons, " a weed of silk which they call a 
Paltocke : their hose are of two colours, or pied with more, which, with lachets which 
they call Herlots, they tie to their Paltocks without any breeches." Here the term 
apparently does not designate a military garment. The Ordinance of Peter, Duke of 
Brittany, to call the nobles and archers to arms in 1450, directs that " let nobles tenant 
au dessous de Ix, U. de rente aient brigandines — ou h tout le moins bons paletocques, 
armez de nouvelle faponf sans manches, h laisehes defer, ou mailles sur le bras,*' 
Monstrelet states that the town of Neelle surrendered to the Comte de Charrolois, A.D. 
1464, on condition that the men-at-arms should be at liberty to depart with their 
harness, ^^et les archiers s*en iroient en leurs pourpoints, ou paletoz, chacun une ver^ 
gette en sa main,''* Chron. iii. c. 112. The term seems here to denote a military defence 
of an Inferior description. According to Roquefort the paletot was a kind of pourpoint, 
or a sort of military cloak, so called from palla, or as Borel suggests, from peltum. 
** Acvpieta, i. vestis acu texta, a paltoke, or a doublette." iced. '* Bombicina, paltoke.*' 
Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 44, v«». *• Paltocke of lether. pelliee, Paltocke, a garment, 
halcret, Paltocke, a patche, palleteau, *' palso. ** Palletoe, palthoc, a long and 
thick Pelt, or cassock ; a garment like a short cloak, with sleeves ; or such a one as 
most of our modem Pages are attired in.** goto. Spanish, ^* Paletoque, a jerkin with 
short skirts.'* minshbu. Skelton uses this term to denote a patch, as given by Pals- 
grave, or some kind of head-gear, in a Poem against Master Gamesche, fluldressing him 
thus ! '* Ye cappyd Cayfoce copious, your paltoke on your pate.** Ed. Dyce, i. p. 118. 

^ Forby observes that in Norfolk a regular division of some sorts of husbandry work, 

Digitized by 




Pane, of a furrure.' Penuloy 
Dice, et coMM. (panula^ p.) 

Panne, vessel. Patella. 

Panne of an heed. Craneutn. 

Panele. Pagelkhpanellus, Dice. 

PANYSRE(or pedde,fn/ra; pany- 
3er, or paner, h. p.) Calathus. 

Panyer, or basket, supra m B. 

Panteere, beest. Pantera, 
Pantere, snare for byrdys.^ La- 

gueus,pedicayCOMU, setan(%)wny 

COMM. {setariumy s.) 
Pantyn. Aneh. 
Pantynge. AnelaciOf vel ane- 

latu» (janelUfiSy p.) 
Pantlere.* Panitarhu* 

as digging or sowing, is called a pane ; and that curtains formed of narrow stripes of 
different colonrs are termed paned. In the Indenture for building the church of Fo- 
theringhay, 1435, it is directed that the steeple should be square in the lower part, and, 
after l^ing carried as high as the body of tne church, ** hit shall be chaungid, and 
tumyd in viij. panes." Dugd. Mon. Ang. iii. Hall, speaking of the richly-decorated 
lodging of Hesu VIII. at Guisnes, 1520, says that from ** the iawe pece of the selyng, 
whiche pece was guylte with fine golde, were woorkes in paan paled.*' He also describe 
maskers in garments of '* blewesatten pauned with sipres ;'' (11 Hen. VIII.) and says 
that Uie royal " henzemenne wear coates of purple Tclvet pieled, and paned with riche 
doth of siluer ;" 14 Hen. VIII. Ang.-Saz. pan, lacinia. Bp. Kennett, in his Glos- 
sarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, gives another meaning of the term pan, as de- 
noting in stone houses the piece of wood that is laid on the top of the wall, and to 
which the spars are fastened, called in the South ** the rasen, or resen, or rescuing : 
Ang.-S. rsesn, laguear.** ** A panne of a house, panmaJ** cath. ano. <' Pane of a wall, 
pan de mur, Panell of a wall, pan de mur,** palsg. " Panne de bois is particularly the 
piece of timber that sustains a gutter between the roofii of two fronts, or bouses." coto. 
1 "Pane of fhrre, pHmne.** palso. ** Panne, a sldnne, fell, or hide." cotg. 
** Pane^pene x Peau,/ourrure, Stoffe, cvir; depamnue*^ Roausp. Joinrille, speaking 
of the modest attire used by St. Louis, says, *' See pennee de tee eouvertouere et de eee 
robee eetoient de gamitee (doe) ou dejambee de Hhiree, ou d'aigneaulxj* Neccham, in 
his treatise de nominibus uteneilium, Cott. MS. Titus, D. zx. f. 8, y^, uses the term 
**penula {pane)*' in a passage which has been giren in the note on grtck, p. S11. 

* This term, derived from Fr. pantiire, a l(ind of snare which was used for catching 
woodcocks and other birds, is used by Chaucer, Rom. of R. 1621 ; Legende of good 
Women, 131. In a poem on the eril times of £dw. II. printed by Mr. Wright from a 
MS. in the Advocates' Libr. the complaint is made that ** pride hath in his paunter 
kauht the heie and the lowe.*' Polit. Songs, p. 344. See also the note, p. 400 ; and Piers 
of Fulham, Hartshome's Metr. Tales, p. 122. " A panteUe strynge, pedicaJ'* cath. 
ang. '* Pediea, ineirumentum eapiendi pedes onimaiiMm, vel laqueue, a fettour, or a 
snare, or a pantel. Setorhtm, a pantell.** ortus. ** Panther to catdie byrdes with, 
pan$ieau.*' palsg. ** Panneau, a large net, or toile." cotg. 

* R. Brunne, in his version of Langtoft's Chron. p. 33, relates the death of King 
Edmund, A.D. 947, by the hand of an outlaw ** pantelere," who had formerly served 
in the royal ** panterie." The word is more frequently written panter, Fr. pannetier, 
Lat. panetariue, as by Rob. Glouc. p. 187, who says that Arthur gave ** l^at lond of 
Aungeo Kaxe ys panter." See the account of the ** OflSce of the Panetry,'* and of 
the duties of the Serjeant thereof, " whiche is called Chief Pantrer of the Kinge's mouthe.*' 
Liber Niger domus Edw. IV. Household Ordin. p. 70. '' A pantelere, ubi a butlere." 
CATH. ANG. *< Pant/or, j7ant«/a, a panter.'* Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. ''Panter, an 
ofiycer, paunetier. Pantrye, an house, of office, panneterieJ* palsg. " Paneiier, a 
pantler." cotg. ** A pantler , panie cusioe, promue.** gouldm. The term is still pre- 
served in the surname Pantler. 

Digitized by 




Pa(n)trye. Panitoriwn, vel 

Pappe. Mamillay uher. 
Paper. Papirusy cath. 
Papmete for chylder. Papatum^ 

UG. V. in P. papa, cath. ap- 

plauda, CATH. 
Parable. Paraboluy enigma 

{peradigmay p.) 
Paradyce. Paradisus. 
Paraf of a booke (or paragraf, 

H. paragraffe, p.) Paraphusy 

paragraphusy cath. 
Pa r a f yd. Paragraphatus. 
Parapfyn. Paragraphoy kylw. 
Paramowre.' Preamatus, 
Parboylyd. Parbullitus. 
Parboylyn mete. Semihullioy 

cath. parbullio. 
Parboylynge. Parhullicio. 
(Parbrakynge, or spwynge, or 

brakynge, supra? Vomitus, 


Parcare. Indagaiovy kylw. 

Parceyvyd. Perceptus. 
Parceyvyn. Perdpioypeypendoy 

c. F. 
Parceyuyn, or take heede. Anv> 

TAodvertOy adverto. 
Parceyvynge. Percepcio. 
Paarche pecyn, orbenys. FrigOy 

CATH. ustilloy UG. V. in T. 
Parchemyne. Pergamenumy 

CATH. fnembranumytnembranay 

c. F. 
Parchemynere. Memhranarius. 
Parchyd, as pesys, or benys 

(pesone, k. pesyn, p.) Fresus, 

Parcyal, or he that more holdyth 

wythe on part, than wythe a 

noJ>er, for favowre, or couetyse. 

Parcloos.* {Parguluniy vel per* 

locutorium, s.) 

» "A paramour, ^torctttm, e^c. ii*f a Icmmtn." cath. ang. "Paramour, a man, 
aeoincie. Paramour, a woman, dame peramour,** palso. 

A This word is used by Skelton, in his Poem on the flight of the Duke of Albany, t. 
3S3. ed. Dyce. ** I cast my gorge, as a haulke doth, or a man y* parbraketh, ie deegorgcy 
and ie vomis. Parbrekyng, uofnineement. I parbrake, ie tfomis, and ie gomye. It is a shreude 
token, that he parbrakyth thus.'* palso. '* He wyll nat cease fro surfettynge, tyll he be 
redy to parbrake.** horm. Andrew Boorde says in his Breviary of Health, c. 373, ** Fo- 
mitue : in English it is named vometinge, or a vomit, or perbrakinge.** See Parbreak, 
and Braking, Jamieson. This word is retained in the Devon dialect, signifying to strain 
in vomiting. See braktnge, p. 47. Compare Teut. braecken, Dan. brsekke sig, vomere. 

s This term appears here to be taken as denoting the open screen, which serves in a 
convent to permit occasional intercourse with the external world, in the parlour, or /o- 
eutoriwm^ which also, in those monasteries where silence was enjoined at other times, 
was reserved as a place for occasional discourse. Pargulum appears to be the dimi- 
nutive otpargutf a corruption otpareite, explained by Ducange as signifying **9eptum 
quo ovet includtmtur,** These screens or gratings were also termed locuioria/enesira, 
** Pardos to parte two roumes, eeparation,*^ palbo. " CinelitUe arc bayes or par- 
closis made aboute the places of judgement, where men not beinge sutars may stande, 
beholde, and here what is done and spoken amonge the juges and pledours. Such a 
lyke thing is at Westmynster Hall about the common place, and is called the bekens. 
Vaeerra, percloses or rayles, made of tymber, within the whiche some thynge is en- 
closed.*' SLiOT. This term is frequently used in connection with ecclesiastical architect 
ture ; as in the contract for carpenter's work in the Beanchamp Chapel, Warwick, 

Digitized by 




Pardon'. Indulgencicu 
Pardonere.* Questor. 
Pare frute. Peripsimo. 
Parfyte (parfyjt, k. parfyth, h. 

parfight, p.) Perfectus. 
Parfytnesse. Perfeccio. 
Parformyd (supra in parfight, 

K. p.) PerfectuSf completus. 

Parformyn, or fulfyllyn.^ Pet' 

Paarformyn (orfulfyllyn, K. p.) 

yn dede. Exequor. 
Parformynge. Complecio, per- 

Pa(r)get, or playster forwallys.* 
Gipsuniy c. F. litura. 

A.D. 1450, as regards " a parclose of tymber '* to be constructed abont an organ-loft, 
to stand over the west door. Dngdale, Hist. Warw. Walter, Lord Montjoy, gives di- 
rections in his will, A.D. 1474, for the embellishment of a chapel in Derbyshire ** with 
a quire and perclose, and two altars without y« quire.*' Testam. Vet. i. 335. Blomfield 
describes the " perclose, or chapel included with cancelli or lattices,*' constructed 
A.D. 1500, in the Church of St. Martin at the Plain, Norwich. Hist. Norf. 

> The pardoner was an ecclesiastic authorised by the head of the Roman Church to 
travel throughout Catholic Europe for the purpose of vending pardons or indulgences, 
with the intention of raising a sum for some special purpose. Chaucer, in his lively 
portraiture of the Pardoner, Cant. T. v. 710, shows the expedients and pretences to 
which such itinerants had recourse, in turning to profitable account the superstition or 
ignorance of the people, a practice to which a check was given by several councils. 
They were termed quesiorett or questionarii, in French gu€steur$. Frequent allusion 
is made in the Vision of Piers Ploughman to the abuse of the authority of the Church, 
which rendered the credulous a prey to crafty itinerants. By Stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. IS, 
all proctors and pardoners travelling the country without sufficient authority were to 
be treated as vagabonds. ** Pardonere, pardonnier.*^ palsg. 

2 To perform, as frequently used by the old writers, has the sense of to work, to 
bring to completion. Cazton, in the Book for Travellers, says, ^* Donaas the doblet 
maker hath performed my doublet, and my iaquet." Amongst the disbursements for 
building Little Saxham Hall, 1507, given by Mr. Rokewode, in the Hist, of Thingoe 
Hundred, Suffolk, p. 145, is a payment to *' Oliver mason for performing a dore." 
Parfomer or parfoumir signifies, according to Roquefort, achever, compUter, ** 1 
performe (Lydgat) t> achieue, declared in I parforme." palsg. 

' This term is thus used in the later Wicliffite yersion, Eccl. zzii. 31 : "As oumyng 
(e>er pargeting) ful of grauel in a cleer wal, so and a ferdful herte in )>e ]>ou3t of a fool : 
eatnenta tine impensd posiia contra faciem venii non permanebuni," Vulg. In the 
Accounts of Sir John Howard, A.D. 1467f is the following entry : ** Item, the vj. day 
of Aprylle my mastyr made a comenaunt wyth Saunsam the tylere, that he schalle 
pergete, and whighte, and bemefelle all the new byldynge ; and he schal have fore his 
labore ziij.«. iv.d.*' Househ. Exp. presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, 
Esq. p. 395. Amongst the charges for building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1506, are 
payments ** for lathing, pargetting, tiryng, and white casting all the roves, walles, 

?articyon8, &c. for pargetments, and zelyng with mortre and here." Rokewode's 
'hingoe Hund. pp. 146, 148. Horman says, in the chapter de re JEd^ficatoridt ** Some 
men wyll haue theyr wallys plastred, some pergetted, and whytlymed ; some roughe 
caste, some pricked, some wrought with playster of Paris. Quidam parietes amani 
loricaioe, et tectorio vettitots quidam gypeum indueuni ; quidam albaria grummulie 
aeperguni ; quidam puncturia dielingunt ; quidam malthd eo$ eonveatiunt. > ' < * I parget or 
whyte lymc, ievnie^ and ie blanchie. I x^yll jj^;!-.^.. u:\ w J :,.:., j\.j- :l i.:, ,i h.\:^- j^Ui. 
Pariette for walles, blanchiseetfre,** palsc, ** Truimure, U) parget." klyot* ** SmalfOt 
plaister, orpergitte. Smaltaio, pergitted/^ W. Thomaap Jtal* Grammar, 154I* " To 



Pargetyn wallys. Gipsoy Unto. 

Pargettynge (or spargettynge 
of wallis, infra,) Gipsacio, 
(gtpsura^ infra; gipsatura^ p.) 

Paryd, as br^e. Decrustatua, 


Parynge, or parow(re) of finite, 
and othyr lyke. Peripsima^ 
CATH. et UG. inperiy et c. f. 

Parynge of frute, or oJ>er lyke. 

Pa ARK. IndagOy c. f. et kylw. 

(Park ere, k. h. p. Indagator.) 

Parlement. Parliamentum (lo' 
cutoriuniy cath. p.) 

Parlement howse. Conciona' 
bulum, c. F. 

Parlowre. Locutorium, cum 

c. non q* secundum cath. 
Parrok, or cowle.' Saginariuniy 

kylw. cavea^ c. f. pargulusy 

NECC. et Dice. 
Parrok, or caban. Preteriolunh 

CATH. capana, cath. 
Parrokkyn, or speryn in streyte 

place (speryn in strey(t)ly, k. 

closyn in streythly, s. streightly, 

p.) Intrudoj ohtrudo. 
Paros, or paryscbe (pares, or 

parych, s.) Parochia. 
(Parour of frute, idem quod 

pannge, supra, H.parowre, p.) 
PAROWREof avestyment.^ Para- 

tura, vel parura. 
Pa ART. Pars. 

parget or plaister, erttsto, gypsot trullisOy gyptum inducertf gypso illino, dealbo. To 
new-parget, or white-lyme, inierpolo,** gouldm. Compare spaugbtttn, or pargette 
-wallys, hereafter. 

1 Parrok of cowle, ms. or cowle, k. s. Compare coowlk to cIosjtq mennys fowlys. 
saginarium; p. 97. In the North a chicken coop is termed a hen-caul ; and the sy- 
nonymous term parrok seems to denote a similar enclosure. Ang.-Sax. pearroc, 
septum ferarium, clausura. In N. Britain, according to Jamieson, a very small en- 
closure or apartment is called a parrock, and to parrach signifies to crowd together, like 
many sheep in a small fold. " Parrocke, a lyteU parke, parquet.** palsg. A fenced 
enclosure of nine acres at Hawsted, in which deer were kept in pens for the course, was 
termed the Parrock. CuUum's Hawsted, p. 210. In Norfolk, according to Forby, an 
enclosed place for domestic animals, as calves, is called a par, and the farm-yard, con- 
taining pars for the various animals which inhabit it, is called a par-yard. 

3 Parura signifies, according to Ducange, opus Phrygium, embroidery of silver or 
gold, or an orfret ; see p. 368, supra. Amongst the gifts to Peterborough by Abbot 
Akarius, who died A.D. 1210, occurs " alba brusdata—cujus paratura violeticum 
habet colorem, et amita et stola cum manipulo ejusdem eoloris brusdata.*' Rob. 
Swapham, Sparke, p. 104. Descriptions of a similar kind occur without number in 
ancient inventories of sacred vestments. The ornaments of the alb, properly desig- 
nated by the term parowre, were square or oblong pieces of rich embroidered st^ 
attached to the vestment at each wrist, and at the feet, or lower part of the alb, one 
before and another behind, being, with the parowre of the amice, five in number, and 
symbolical, as it is supposed, of the wounds on the hands and feet, and the crown of 
thorns, of the Saviour. Papebrochius, Acta SS. Propyl. Mali, giving the explanation 
of this usage, speaks of it as quite obsolete. The large parowre, at the bottom of the 
alb in front, is exhibited in a profusion of instances on sepulchral brasses and efilgies ; 
that which decorated the amice, according to its ancient fkshion, appears like a standing 
collar above the chasuble, with which it is sometimes erroneously supposed to have been 
connected. It must be observed that these ornaments were most commonly, if not 

Digitized by 




Pa ART, or deele. Porcio. 
Partable. Partibilisy dwisi- 

hilis (partiabilis, s.) 
Partbnere. Particeps. 
Party, supra in part. 
Party clothe, or clothe made 

of dyuers colowrys. Pannucia, 

Part YD a-sundyr. Divisus^ se- 

Part YD, or dyvydyd, and delte 

a-bowte (deuyded or dalt aboute, 

p.) Partitus, distrihutus. 
Partyn a-sundyr, or clevyn 

(clyuyn, p.) JDivido, 
Partyn a-sundyr that were to- 

gedyr yn one place. SegregOy 

disgrego, separo. 
Partyn, canty ii, or delyii. Par- 

tioTy impercior. 
Partynge, or delynge. Particio, 

Partynge a-sundyr (partinge fro 

sunder, h. p.) Separacio^ se* 

gregacto, divisio. 
ParvyceJ Parlatorium, ug. i» 

Paste of dowe. Pasta. 
Pasty (or pye, infra.) PastilUiy 

vel pascilkh artocrea, cath. 

pa^stillusy c. F. (pastelloy p.) 
Pastlere.3 Cer(e)agius, cath. 

pastillarius. Dice. 
Pasture of beestys. Pa^scua^ 

pastura, c. ¥, pastorale, brit. 
Pasturyn beestys, or fedyii. 

Pasco, CATH. 

Pasturyn, or ete the pasture, as 
beestys. Depasco, pasco. 

Patene, or pateyne of a chalys 
(patent of the chalys, k. paten, 
or payten, s.) Patena, c. f. 

Pateyne, fote vp berynge (pa- 
teyne of tymbyre, k. or yron, to 
walke with, F.y Calopodium, 

properly, of the Bame suit, de eddem sectd, as the stole and maniple. Their variety 
was remarkable : in the Lives of the Abbots of St. Albans we find **paruras auro et 
tturifrigio, et acuplumario deeoratas.** Occasionally they were set with gems : ** Pa- 
ruram pontam cum perreid, et armU Anglie,** Rymer, X. 346. Remarkable specimens 
of the PAROWRB of the amice supposed to have been worn by St. Thomas of Canter- 
bnry, and preserved in the Treasury at Sens, are represented in Shaw*s Dresses and 
Decorations. Wyntown speaks of ** albys wyth pamrys.** See Jamieson. The term 
was applied to similar ornamental work on other vestments, as ** chirothece paratCf*^ 
&c. The term apparel is occasionally used in the same sense, as in the Inventory of 
Winch. Cath. 1535, where certain vestments are named, with the " parel of the albes 
of the same work, of my L. Cardinal Beaaford's gift.'* Strype's Mem. of Cranmer. 

1 The parvise, a term of Greek origin, which occurs in Chaucer's Rom. of R. v. 
7158, is explained as being the portico of a church, called Paradisua, or paravisus, 
possibly on account of the trees which environed the entrances of the Greek churches. 
See Ducange, Tyrwhitt's Glossary to Chaucer, and Towneley Myst. p. 200. ** Phice 
nere a churche to walke in, pttruis." palso. ** Parvis, the porch of a Church ; 
also (or more properly) the utter court of a Palace, or great house." cotg. " Hortor f 
guadere, Hfc. unde hortator, hortamen, et hortatoriutn, i. palmatorium {etc) monachorumf 
locus ubi hortaminafiuntJ^ Uguitionis Vocab. Arund. MS. 127, f. 34, v<*. 

« '' A pasteler, f?a«/t//arttt«." cath. ano. '* Pastier that baketh,/Mu/{«i«r.'* palso. 
DulciariuSf a pastfar." klyot. " Pastisier, a pasterer, or pie maker.*' coto. 

9 ** A patane, calopodiumj Hgnipes, UgmpedumJ*^ cath. ano. '* CalopodiuiUf a 
stylte or a paten. Calopifex, a maker of patens or styltes.*' ortus. " Paten for a fote, 
galoche. Paten maker, /;a/trater.'' palsg. Compare galachs, p. 184, and g alloche, 

Digitized by 




Patent (of, k. p.) j* kyngys 

seele. Patens. 
Pathe, wey of men. Semita^ 

CATH. orbita. 
Pathe, wey of beestys. Callis, 


Pat RY ARK. Patriarcha. 
Patronage. Patronattis. 
Patrone of a benyfece (patron 

or patrun, p.) Patronus. 
Patrone, forme to werk by 

(patrone, or exawmplere, k. ex- 

saumpyl, h. patron or example, 

p.) Exemplar. 
Patronesse. Patronissa (pa^ 

tronon, p.) 
Pawe of a beest. Palmuloypalma. 
Pavynge stone, or pathynge 

stone.* Petalumy cath. 
Pavyce, or defence (for defence, 

Pawme of an hande. Palma. 

p. 185. Pattens were used anciently by ecclesiastics, probably to protect the feet from 
the chill occasioned by the bare pavement of a chorch, an unbecoming practice which 
was condemned severely. In Hntton's Excerpta from the Registers of the Diocese of 
York, Harl. MS. 6971, it is stated in an archiepiscopal visiUtion, A.D. 1390, " //em, 
omnet minutri eccletie pro mqjore parte utuntur in eeelesid et in procettione patens et 
clogges, contra honestatem eccUaie, et antiquam eonsuetudinem capituli,*' Ducange 
also dtes an ordinance of the Chapter of Auxerre, *' non portentur calopodia in choro, 
sub pond distributionum uniue diei ;** and in the accounts of the Churchwardens of 
St. Mary- Hill, London, A.D. 1491» the item occurs, "for ij. pair of pattens for the 
priests.*' Pattens, at the period when the Promptorium was compiled, formed an 
ordinary part of the costume of a gentleman. In the Hietoire du petit Saintr^, written 
about 1459, his welUsupplied wardrobe, as page of the court, comprised ** eouliere et 
patine, qui eoient bien/aictaf** of each three pair. So also in 1464, the steward of Sir 
John Howard made these entries of expenses in London : ** Payd fore a payre of 
patynys, iij.J. For a payre patynys for my master,'* Household EIxp. in Eng. In 
the same year the craft of ** patyn ** makers of London petitioned the crown that the 
Stat. 4 Hen. V. which forbade them to use the wood of the aspen-tree, as being that 
which was chiefly used by the fletchers, might be repealed, representing that it was the 
best ** and lightest tymbre to make of patyns or clogges.*' Rot. Pari. iv. 567. A 
drawing which represents King John, Cott. MS. Julius, E. iv., affords a curious re- 
presentation of the pattens of this period. See Shaw's Dresses. Horman, speaking of 
Tarious dances, alludes to those which were performed on pattens, and rendei^sd by him 
gyraeula. " Let us daunce patende, or with styltis." 

^ " Petalumt i, forma tnarmorea instar tetetre quadrata^ unde pavimenta templorum 
vel domorutn et palaciorutn quondam etemebantur,** cath. In Norfolk a square paving 
brick is called a pamment. " Rudusy a pament stoone.'* mbd. " Pament of a strete, 
pauiment, pauee, Paument of a strete, paui, Pauyng stone, q%iarreau,** palso. 

s This term denotes a kind of large shield of plain wood, or covered with skins, such 
as the parma described by Brito in the Philippidos, x. 216, called pavesia, and in French 
pavoie, Th. Walsingham speaks of vrmtA pamsarii in the service of Edw. III. and in 
the rates of wages of the household of that king, A.D. 1344, are mentioned **pauew8, 
pauecos," and << peuecers,'* but in the Househ. Ordin. published by the Antiqu. Soc. 
these words have erroneously been printed with- an n. The pavise was almost essential 
to the balittariu9y affording him a protection whilst winding up the cross-bow, as men- 
tioned in the Chron. B. da Guesclin, v. 3106, and represented in the Life of Richard 
Beauchamp, Cott. MS. Jul. E. iv. Strutt's Horda, ii. pi. 43. Frequently the pavi^ 
sarius was merely the attendant who carried that defence. In Talbot's ordinances for 
the army, A. D. 1419, it is directed that every ** ij. yomen make them a good pavise of 
hordes, or of p*p', in the beste maner they cane best devise, that on may hold it, whilef 

Digitized by 



Pawment, Pavimentum, 

Pawmere.^ Ferula. 

Pawncheclowt, or trype (or 
wamclowte, infra; pawnclout, 
s.) Scrutumy cath. tripay 
CATH. magmentumy cath. et 
c. F. 

Pawnchere (pawunchere, v.y 

Lumharcy renale. 
Pawse, of stynty(n)ge, or a-byd- 

y(n)ge. Pausacioy pausa. 
Pawse, yn redyuge of bokys. 

Periodus, cath. et c. F. 

FAWTEVER^^CassidileyCATH. c.f. 

that other dothe Bhete." Elzcerpta Hift. 43. In Trerisa^s Tenion of Vegediu, Roy. 
MS. 18 A. XII. are ennmeratMl the machines and great shot with which a legion was 
prorided, such as " spryngoltes, tripgettes, bowes of brake, arblastes bende, &c. the 
strengthe and myghte of his shot may nothing with-stonde, neyther hors man with 
plates and haberions, ne foot man with paves and shelde." B. iL c. 24. Again they are 
mentioned as wall-shields, of which kinds cnrions specimen formed ofironispresenred 
in the porter's lodge at Warwick castle. ** It nedethe )«t ther be good plentie of targes, 
paaysses, and sheldes in )>e dtie, to kener and to hill or stop the gappes of the enbatiU 
mentes of |>e walles fro shot.'* B. iv. c. 6. They are also mentioned as useful in sea- 
fights. In the passage of arms between Lord Scales and the Bastard of Burgundy, 
A.D. 1467, it is said, ** We shalle doo armes on foote— and shalle mo we here a targe 
or a pavis, aftir the wille and pleasire of eyerich of us." Lansd. MS. 385 ; in the 
French, Harl. MS. 4632, **pavomHe.** In Sir John Talbot's great hall at Caistor, 
A.D. 1459, was ^'j. rede pavys. Item, j. target." Archseol. zjd. 272. The paTyoe 
was retained in use after the adoption of fire-arms. Thus Hall, in his account of the 
battle at Flodden, 1513, describes the furious fire kept up by the artillery on both sides : 
'* And after the shotte was done, which they (the Scotch ?) defended with pauishes, they 
came to handestrokes." •* Tragea^ a pauys." Harl. MS. 1002, f. 152. ** A pavysse, 
eiutrum,*' cath. ano. <* Panes to defende one with, i^ovatt." palso. ** Te^tudine 
(Ital.) a great shield, target, or paluoise. Pautse, paueaee, a kinde of target called a 
palueise." tlorio. 

1 ** Wande, flageUum. Pahnere, palmatorium, ferula, percuaorittm,** Roy. MS. 
17 C. XVII. In the Eqnivoca of Joh. de Garlandift, with the interpretations of 
Master Geoffry, probably the compiler of the Promptorium, it is said that ** ferula eei 
tneirumenium quo ditcipuli percuHuntur in manibue, quod et alio nomine palmatorium 
appellatur, AngUce a palmer." *' A palmare in >e scole,/«r«/a, hortatorium, palma- 
torium,** CATH. ANO. *' Ferula, a rod or stycke wherwith childem's handes be striken 
in scholes, a palmer.'* bltot. 

s Compare brtotrdtlb, lumbar e, renale i p. 51. ** Lumbare, abrekgyrdyl. Renaley 
a breche gyrdyl." if ed. " Epffemora, panchere." Harl. MS. 1002. ** A pawncherde, 
renale, etc, ubi a brekebelt." cath. ano. Cazton says, in the Book for Travellers, 
" On the perche hongen your clothes, mantelles, &c. upon the keuerchief chertes, 
breches, with the panutcher (eie) whan ye be ynclothed ; brayee h tout le braieul quand 
vou$ eetes devestuee,** In the Invent, of the eifects of Hen. Y. A.D. 1423, occurs the 
item, "j. pauncher enbroudee d*or, ovec i^, bokull, iy, pendants gamiz d^ argent 
dorrei : prie de V argent, ovec le gower gamiz dee garnadee, et j, bokuU, et J, pendant 
d* argent dorrez, *j?.*." Rot. Pari. iv. 221. 

s ** Mareupium, a pawtenere, a powche. CastidUe eetpera aucupie, vel mereipium, 
vel eacculus, a pautenier or a pouche." mbd. Caeeidile dicitur pera, earciperium, 
iicatium, mareupium, moeulue, loeulue, erumena, &c. a paneter, a pouche, a breyded 
gyrdel. Cremena, a pautener {oL pantenet) or syluer. Lenonem lena non diligit abeque 
eremena,** ortus. The term *' pautenere " occurs in Syr Degore, written early in 
XlVth cent In 1379 Thos. de Fbrnjlawe, Chancellor of York, bequeaths his <* paw- 

Digitized by 



Pax, of kyssynge (or kyssynge, 
s.) Osculum, vel oaculumpads. 

Pax bredb.^ Osculatorium. 

Paxwax, synewe.^ (paxwex, p.) 

Pece, cuppe.® Pecia, crater. 
Dice, crateruy cath. patera, 
CATH. et Dice, albinus, c. f. 

Pece, or part (party, p.) Perti- 
cula, pars, porciun(cu)la. 

Pec HE, or peske, firute.^ Pesca, 
pomum Percicum. 

(Pechynge, or appechynge, s.) 
Appellacio, c. f. 

Pecyn, or set pecys to a thynge, 

tener de Merico.^' Tesfc. Ebor. i. 103. Caxton mentioDS, in the Book for Travellers, 
'* pawtenerg, tasses, aloyeres, iiuses.** Aloiere was, according to Roquefort, the large 
flat purse, commonlj worn in the XVth cent, appended to the girdle, Lat ailoverium. 
It appears very frequently on the Norfolk sepulchral brasses, which represent secular or 
mercantile persons. " Pautner, maleiie,** palso. 

1 Of the usage in the service of the mass of kissing a small tablet of wood or metal, 
ornamented with some sacred figure or device, see Dr. Milner's observations, Archseol. 
zx. 534. The tabula pro pace^ called in French portepaix^ was formed of every pos- 
sible and costly material, or in earlier and more simple times of wood, whence it 
was called '* pax horde,'* as in the will of Sir Thos. Litdeton, 1481, or pax bredb. 
Compare bredb, or litiUe horde, p. 48. By the synod of Exeter, 1287, it was ordained 
that in every parish church there should be ** asaer ad pacem,** Wilkins, ii. 139. The 
name was used, however, without any regard to the propriety of its application. In 
the will of Henry le Scrop, 1415, is mentioned *' una Paxbrede argentea et deaurata,** 
Rymer, ix. 273. In an Inventory of St Dunstan's, Canterbury, 1500, occurs ** a pax 
borde off latin, a crucyfyx for a pax horde off coper and g^ltt.'* Amongst the gifts of 
Abp. Chichele to All Souls, Oxford, Invent, taken about 1460, are '* vj. pBxjsdeifitro.** 
In the Inventory of St. Paul's, 1298, given by Dugdale, and that of St. George's, 
Windsor, 1384, splendid |7art7/a are described. ^^Paxillum, Anglice paxbrede.'* ortus. 
The use of the pax was one of those symbolic ceremonies which were not immediately 
abolished in the Reformed Church ; it was enforced by the Ecclesiastical Commission 
of Edw. VI., and even rendered more conspicuous than before, as a token of joyful 
peace between God and man's conscience. See the Injunction for the Deanery of 
Doncaster, cited from Burnet by Dr. Milner. 

^ This term, which is given by Sir T. Browne, is retained in Norfolk and Suffolk, ac- 
cording to Forby and Moor. Ray gives pack- wax as common in all counties ; it sig- 
nifies the strong tendon Id the neck of animals. " Fix fax, nomen eartilagmit qud 
caput humeris utrinque ailigatur, Yorkshire ; pax wax, Norf." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. 
MS. 1033. Compare Brockett, Craven Dial, and Jamieson, who would derive the 
word from Germ. Flachs, a sinew. Gautier de Bibelesworth says, of a man*s body, 

" Et eiad U wenne (fex wex) au col derere,** 
" Za! vendon, the fax wax." Harl. MS. 219, f. 150. In the curious treatise on vege- 
table remedies, Arund. MS. 42, f. 44, v°, it is said of '* BdeUiut, Delle — it resoluyth 
blod )>at is congelyd, i. cold slawyn, and cloddyd, and clumperyd, and helpe)> for brus- 
sures of |>e paxwax and of )>e brawn, and for congelacyon of )>e senewys." Again, f. 47, 
the virtues of capers are commended " for desese in >e pascwax, and in )>e senewys ;** 
and of Oalbanum, f. 90, v<>, *' it is gode for alyzere, i. >e crompe, and for >e spasme, 
)>e shote in >e lacertys, i. in |>e paswaxis.'' 

> ** A pece of siluer or of metalle, crateTf cratera,*' cath. ang. ** Crater^ vat r<- 
narmm, a pyece or wyne cuppe." ortus. " Pece to drinke in, taaee, Pece, a cuppe, 
/oMe, hanap,** 

4 In a roll of purchases for the palace at Westminster, preserved amongst the nus- 

Digitized by 




or clowtyn, Rep€cioyreh(r)occOy 
sarciof cath. reficio. 
Pekokkb, byrde. Pavoj pavusy 


Pectoral of a yestyment, or 

other a-rayment.' PecioraUy 
Peddare.2 Calatharius (quifacit 
calathosy K.)qu€unllarittSy quas' 
sillariusy c. f. (^piscariusy p.) 

cellaneoos Records of the Queen's Remembrancer, a payment occurs ** Will. It Gar- 
dener, pro iij, koygnere, ij.piehere, iij,s. — pro groieillere, ii},d. pro j. pe9chere, vj,d,** 
A.D. 1375, 4 Edw. I. Phillips, however, states as his opinion that the peach-tree 
was brought from Italy with the apricot, by Wolf, gardener to Hen. VIII. in 1524. 
Pomarium Brit. 383. 

1 The pectoral, as a sacred ornament used by the prelates of the Christian church, 
appears to have derired its origin from the jewelled breast-plate of the Jewish high- 
priest, the Xoyctby reov Kpia€»Vf or rationale judicii, according to the Vulgate, Elxod. 
zxriii. 15, rendered in the earlier Wicliffite version ** thebreest broche of dom," in the 
later '* the racional of doom." It was worn attached to the breast of the chasuble, and 
although never, as it appears, in general use, yet many examples present themselves in 
England. As regards the obscure subject of the early use of the rationaUt much infor- 
mation may be gained from the authors cited by Ducange. It is minutely described in 
an ancient inventory of pontifical ornaments at Rheims, given by Marlot in the Hist, of 
that see, and appears to have closely resembled the Jewish breast-plate, being formed of 
13 stones, whereon the names of the 13 sons of Israel were inscribed, fixed upon cloth 
of gold, and attached by means of chains over the shoulders, whereupon also there were 
two stones called *' eamayeuxt*^ in imitation of those which were worn by the high- 
priest. A second ratimiale for less solemn occasions is described in the same document, 
which resembled less closely the Jewish ornament : it was formed of one stone of un- 
usual brilliancy and size, called *' camayeuy'** around which were set 4 emeralds, and as 
many balais rubies. A representation of this remarkable ornament may be seen in the 
plate given by Du Bouchet, in the Hut. of the House of Courtenay, p. 174, which 
represents the sepulchral effixy of Robert de Courtenay, Archbishop of Rheims, who 
died 1333. The most remarkable representation which exists in England is afforded by 
the effigy placed under Prince Arthur's chantry in Worcester cathedral, and attributed 
to Bp. Godfrey Giifard, 1368 — 1301. The rationale here appears as a square plate 
upon the breast of the chasuble, with a quatrefoil in the centre, and set with eight 
gems. This ornament appears in England chiefly during the Xlllth cent. See the 
seals of Joceline, Bp. Bath, and John, Bp. Winch. 1305 ; of Eustace, Bp. Lond. 1333, 
Walter, Bp. Carlisle, 1333, Ralph, Bp. Heref. 1339, Sylvester, Bp. Carlisle, 1346, 
Henry, Bp. Lincoln, 1300; and the effigy of Bp. Laurence, at Rochester, who died 
1374. In the Invent, of St. Paul's, 1395, given by Dugdale, several chasubles are 
described as furnished with the peetorale, formed of gold, or cloth of gold, set with 
gems. Its use was not entirely abandoned at a later period : it appears upon the seal 
of Richard, Bp. Lincoln, 1430, and in the Invent, taken at Winchester cauiedral at the 
Dissolution, occur a pectoral of gold ; another partly of gold, and six of silver gilt, all 
garnished with stones. Strype's Mem. of Cranmer, App. p. 35. The term pectoral 
occasionally designates an ornament of the cope, as in the Invent, taken at St. Paul's, 
and given by Dugdale, in which mention occurs of a *' capa, cum Petro et Paulo tn 
peetorali: Capa — cum rotundis pectoralihte auri/riffiie,** &c. 

s In the Eastern Counties, according to Forby and Moor, a pannier, such as serves 
to carry provisions to market, is termed a ped, the market in Norwich, where wares 
brought in from the country are exposed for sale, being known as the ped-market, and 
a deider who transports his wares in such manner is termed a pedder. Hence is de- 

Digitized by 




Pbdde, idem quod panere, supra 
(calathuSi P.) 

Pedegru, or petyg^, lyne of kyn- 
rede, and awncetrye (pedegrw, 
avnsetry, k. pedegru, or pedygni, 
s. pedegrewe, or petygrwe, lyne 
or leny of kynred, p.) Stemma^ 
CATH. c. F. et UG. in scalis. 

Pedlare, shapmann (chepman, 
8.) ParticuSy \JG. in parcior, 

Pegge, or pynne of tymbyr. 

Pe-henne. Pavona, 

PEYCE,or wyghte (peise of whyght, 
K.y Pondus. 

Peys of a welle. Telo, in K. 
kyptre (ciconiay supra,) 

Peyne. Pena. 

Peynfulle. Penalis. 

Peynyd. CrucicUus. 

Peynyn, or gretely grevyn. 

Crucioy torqueoy cath. 
Peynyn, or pynyn yn wo or 

sekenesse. LangueOj elangueo. 
Peynynge. Cruciatus. 
Peynys, yvyl yn horsys fete. 
Peyntyd, or poyntyd, or por- 

trayd. Pictusy depictus. 
Peyntyn, or portrayyii (or poyn- 

ton, infraJ) PingOy depingo. 
Peyntynge, or portrature (or 

poyntynge, infra,) Pictura, 
Peyntowre (or poyntowre, tn- 

Jra.) Pictor, 
Peysyn, or weyyii, Pondero, 

libroy trutinoy c, f. et cath. 
Peytrel, of horsys hameys (peyn- 

trel, K.) Anteloy c. f. 

rived the name by which the ancieat Roman line of road is known which leads from the 
great camp at Holme» on the N.W. Norfolk coast, towards Ixworth, in Suffolk, and 
seems to have fallen into the line leading from Thetford to Stow-market. The greater 
part of this road across the champaign parts of Norfolk is still called the Peddar Way, 
doubtless because, like the Welshman's Road in Warwickshire and the parts adjacent, 
the straight direction of its course caused it to be frequented by itinerant traders. The 
Peddar Way may be traced upon the Ordnance Survey through nearly its whole extent. 
It is also given in Woodward's Map of Roman Norfolk, ArchseoL xxiii. 358. There is 
also a vicinal road leading from Ightham, Kent, to Famham, Surrey, which is called the 
Pedlar^s Way. The Norfolk term pack- way seems to be synonymous. Sir John Paston, 
writing A.D. 1473, says, ** I most have myn instruments hyddur, whyche are in the 
chyst in my chambre at Norwyche, whyche I praye you and Bemey togedre joyntly, 
but nat seueraUy, to trusse in a pedde, and sende them hyddur in hast.'' Paston Letters, 
V. 58. Tusser, in his list of husbandly furniture, given under September's husbandry, 
enumerates '' a pannell and wanty, pack-saddle, and ped.*' Ray speaks of dorsers as 
the kind of peds or panniers used by the fish-jobbers of Lyme to bring their fish to 
London, llie original Glossary to Spenser, Sheph. Cal. Nov. V. 16, gives this expla- 
nation : " A haske is a wicker ped, wherein they use to carrie fish." It is owing to 
this use of peds that, in Pynson's edit, of the Promptorium, peddare is rendered pis* 
carius. East Winch, in Norfolk, is called in old documents Pedder*s Winch. '* A 
pedder, revolus, negociator,*^ cath. ano. See Jamieson, v, Peddir. 

^ R. Brunne uses the word *' peis '* in the sense of weight ; Langt. Chron. See also 
Vision of Piers PI. v. 3957 ; Cov. Myst. p. 236. " Peyce, a weyght, /?eyi, pesant,'* 
PAL80. ** When the yse melted and brake, the payse tberof brake many a stronge 
brydge." Fabyan, Chron. 6 Will. Rufus. The adjective '^paisand/' heavy, occurs in 
Golagros and Gawane, 463 ; and Chancer uses the verb to peise, to weigh. The pbts 
of a well appears to designate the counter-poised beam, termed also x.tptrb, supray 
p. 276, whereby in Southern Europe, as also in other countries, water is raised. 

Digitized by 




Peyr, or a pe3rr, of tweyne 
thyngys (peysyr, h, peyyre, s, 
peysyr of two thinges, p.) Par. 

Pekke, niesure. Bcitus. 

Pele, of bellys ryngynge (or 
a-pele of belle ryngynge, supraJ) 
Ctussicumy CATH. 

(Pele, of owen, k. peel for ^ 
ovyn, s, pele for ouyn, p.) 
Palmuloy pellica {paloy p.) 

Peletyr, herbe. SerpiUumypire' 
t(y)umy c. F. (^piretrum, p.) 

Pelfyr (pelfrey, s.) SpoUutn. 

(Pelle, or other clothe leyd on a 
dede body, supra in palle. Ca- 
pulare, VQ. in capio,) 

Pellycann, byrd. Pellicanus. 

Pel YN, or apelyii. Appello, cath. 

Pelot, rownde stone of erthe, or 

other mater (pelet, h. p.)^ Pi- 

leus, velpiliolus, rudus, c. f. 
Peloure, dieef. Appellator, 
Pellure, or furrure.2 Pellura. 
Penawnce. Penitencia. 
Penawnte (penaunscer, h. pe- 

nawynt, s. penauncer', p.) Pe^ 

nitenciatus, tch turn. 
Pencel, for portrayynge. Peni- 

culuSf c. F. pincella, kylw. 

pinca, c. f. ( penicillus, k. s.) 
Pencyf, or hevy in herte (pen- 

cyue, s.) Pensati(yyusy cogi- 

Pencyfnesse. Pensumy cath. 
Pencyone, dette to be payed. 

Pend A WNT, of a gyrdylle.8 Mor- 

daculunh Dice, et kylw. 

1 — rownde stone, or erthe, ifs. of berth, s. of erthe, p. The term pellet, Fr. pelotte, 
designated the stone balls, or missiles which were projected by the mangonels, and war- 
like engines of early times, and by artillery, bnllets of stone being disused only in the 
XVIth cent. Misnles formed of indurated clay have also been found, the use of which is 
perhaps indicated in the Promptorium. In Golagros and Gawane, t. 463, are mentioned 
<' peUokis paisand,*' with *' gapand gunnis of brase ;'' and Chaucer uses the simile 
** swifte as a pellet out of a gonne." House of Fame, iii. Herman says, '* The mes- 
senger was slayne with a pellet, glande,*' and Hall speaks of shooting *' great pellettes, 
whiche made a greate noyse." Chron. S4 Hen. VIII. *'A pelet of stone, or lede, 
glans?^ oath. ano. " Pellet, a rounde stone« plomme.*^ palso» See Mr. Archi- 
bald's observations on stone shot found in the island of Walney, Archseol. zzviii., and 
Mr. Porrett*s notice of shot found in the Tower moat, AxchKol. zxz. Compare 
c ALTON, rounde stone, rudut, p. 58. 

* The Stat. 11 Edw. III. c. 2, ordains that no one under the rank of a knight, and 
churchmen, who may spend ;^100 in the year, ** ne usepeleure en sea drapt,** upon pain 
of forfeiture. Stat, of R. vol. I. 281. In the Romance of Kyng Alisaunder that prince 
is described as alighting from bis steed, when having been disarmed, he '' dude on a 
robe of peolour.*' v. 4129. See also the passages cited in the Glossary to Syr Gawayn. 
WidiiTe, in the complaint to the King and Parliament, ol^ects that the poor were con- 
strained to provide a worldly priest in pride and gluttony ** with fair hors and jolly, and 
gay saddles and bridles ringing by the way, and himself in costly cloths and pelure," 
whilst they perished from cold and hanger. Hardyng speaks of the state of King 
Arthur, who was attended by a thousand knights, 

** Clad all in graye of pelury preordinate, 
That was fidl riche, accordyng to there estate.*' Chron. c. 74. 

s " Apendandeof abelte, pendulum.** cath. ano. The rich decoration of the 
extremity of the girdle appears on monumental effigies in great variety, and is Are- 

Digitized by 




Pendawnt, of wrytys crafle, or 
masunryJ Pendicula, kylw, 

Penne.2 Penna, 

Pennb kntfe. ArtafitSy Dice. 
{artavusy s. p.) 

Penna RE. Pennariumj calama- 

riufOy CATH. 

Penna RE, or ynkhome yn' o 
worde (penner* and ynkome, 
H. p.) Scriptorium, calatna' 
rium, CATH. (atramentariumj 

(Peny, K.p. Denaritu,nummu9.) 

Penyworthe, of what )>ynge h3rt 

be. Denariatus, nummatus. 
Penone, lytylle banere.^ Bandunij 

pennum, c. f. et ug. in ballheus. 
Pentawncere.4 Penitenciarius, 
Pentcost (or Whysson tyde, 

infra; Pencost, K. p.) Hec 

Pentyce, of an howse ende.* 

Appendiciunty c. f. imbuluSf 

CATH. et UG. V. in A. et kylw. 

appendix, ug. in pendo. 
Pepyr. Piper. 

qnently described in InTeotoriet, as in one taken at York cathedral, and printed in 
Mon. Angl., in which is mentioned ** una le pendant parva de auro Veneto, cum Utpi^ 
dibu9 et perles." Mordaculum, in French mordant^ is nsually taken in the sense of 
the tongne of the buckle, but occasionally appears to signify a distinct ornament of the 
girdle. ** Pendant of a gyrdell, pendant.*^ palso. 

^ Palsgrave gives this term, denoting a plamb-line. ** Pendant for carpenters, 

* Pennb is not nnfrequently used by the old writers in the sense of feather; Fr. 
penne. In the Vision of Piers PI. mention occurs of the '* pennes of the pecok." v. 
7923. In the Golden Legend it is said that '* the foule that — hathe but fewe pennes 
or fethers, may not well flee ;*' and again, '* David sayth, he flewe vpon the pennes of 
the wyndes.*' 

' A pennon was a small flag attached to the lance, whereby the rank of the bearer was 
known. Wace appropriates it to the knight, and the gonfanon to the baron, but at a later 
time it appears to have designated the bachelor. Oliv. de la Marche describes the cere- 
mony of the bachelor being made abanneret, when the '* queue dupennon armoyS** was 
cut off, " et demoura gua^,** was converted into a banner." L. vi. c. 25. Trevisa, in 
his version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. says that '* horsmen ben deped the 
wynges of the boost— and thies ben cleped banarers, for they here baners and pynons ; 
veiie, hoc eetftammulit utuntur.** 6. ii. c. 1. In an Invent, of church ornaments, in 
the enumeration of banners, occurs '*a pynon off St. Donston.'* Gent. Mag. viii. N.S. 
571. *' Pennon, a banner, pennon, Penon, a lytell baner in a felde, pennon." palso. 
In Lansd. MS. SS5, f. 431, is given the size of standards, banners, pennons, &c. as set 
down by the Constable and Marshal. ''A guydon to be in length ij. yardes and a 
half, or iij. A pennon of armes round att the end, and to be in length ij. yardes.'* In 
Harl. MS. 356, f. 5, may be seen sketches of all these ensigns ; the getone being 
swallow -tailed, Uie penon triangular, and charged with the armorial bearing, the former 
being appropriated to the esquire or gentleman, the latter to the knighu 

^ '' A penytenciary, penitenciariue," oath. amo. The institution of this dignity 
in cathedral churches is usually dated from the Council of Trent, 1545 ; but it is certain 
thht pcmiteniiarii, persons authorised in certain cases to give absolution, in place of the 
bishop himself, existed from a much earlier period. See Ducange and Macer. Chaucer 
speaks of the penitencer in the Persones Tale as one empowered to give absolution in 
extraordinary cases. ** Penytauncer, penitaneier,** palso. 

* In a French Vocabulary, Harl. MS. S19, f. 148, w^, is given **eiectieet a pentys.*' 
Caxton, in the Boke of the Fayt of Armes, explains how a fortress ought to be supplied 

Digitized by 



Peptr qwernb (pepirwherne, 

K. s.)' Fractillum^ c. f. mo- 

linellum piperisy UG. infrangOf 

fritillumy cath. mola piperalis, 


Perawntyr (peraventure, h. p.) 
Forte, Jbrtasse, for tassis. 

Perch E, fysche. Percha, Dice. 
parcha, comm. 

Perche, or perke.^ Pertica. 

Pbrchbr, candylle (perche can- 
dell, v.y Perticalis, 

Pberctd, orboryd. Perforatus*. 

Peercyn, or boryn. Penetroj 

Pebrcynge, or borynge (perch- 
inge, or persinge, p.) Perfo 

Persley, herbe (percyly, k. per- 
cyle, s. percyll, p.) Petrocillum^ 

with fresh water, cisterns being provided, *' where men may receiue inne the rayne 
watres that fallen donne a-long the thackes of thappentyzes and houses." Part ii. c. 17. 
** A pentis, appendix, appendhium, apheduOy {tic) ut dicit Briio s et diciiur prqfectum, 
n de lignot mmionvmy ti de lapidibut," cath. amo. ** Penthouse of a house, appentU. 
Pentys over a stall, avuent. Pentes or panes, e«/a/, toubtil** palso. Bp. Kennett 
states that in Chester there was a ** curia penticiartim tenia in auld pentictd ^ludem 
dtfitatisJ* Lansd. MS. 1033. 

* ** A paire of pcpyr qwhernBt/raxiiluit/retetlumypistilluSypistillum,^* cath. ano. 
''Peperqueme, ^e^oyr a /ioy«r«." PALSO. See au erne. Ang. - Sax. cwym, mo/a. 

' ^* A perke, pertica.** cath. ano. Amongst the ancient furniture of the chamber 
the perch appears to haTe answered the same purpose as the clothes-horse of later 
times. The falconer had likewise his perch, whereon the hawks were accustomed to 
sit. In the dictionary composed by Joh. de GrallandiSL it is said, ** Supra perticam 
magittri JoAannis divena indumenta pendent : tunice, eupertunicalia, pallia, ecapU" 
laria^ capa, coopertorium, lintheamina, renones, aarabarre, etragule, camieie, bracce, 
bumbicinia et tapeta,** Sec; and it is added in the Gloss, ** pertica, Gallice perche, 
unde venue : Pertica diversos panno* retinere aolebat,^* Documene inidite : Paris sous 
Philippe le Bel, ed. G^raud, App. p. 603. Cazton says, in the Book for Travellers, 
amongst the appliances of the chamber, ** On the perche hongen your clothes, man- 
telles, frockes, clokes, cotes, doblettes, furres, wynter clothes and of somer,*' See, In 
Norfolk a perch, or a wooden frame, against which sawn timber is set up to dry, is 
called, according to Forby, a perk. 

> This term appears to designate a wax candle of certain dimensions, such as it was 
customary to place on the pertica or pergula, a small transverse beam or bar, whereon 
in churches or other places candles were affixed. Edw. Phillips, in the World of 
Words, states that perohers were the same as Paris candle, anciently used in England, 
also a bigger sort of candles, commonly set upon the altars. According to the ancient 
assise recorded in the Memoriale multorum of Henry, Prior of Canterbury, 1285 — 1331, 
Cott. MS. Galba; E. ly. f. 45, the Sacrist was bound to provide for the Prior's chamber 
cereos of the weight of half a lb. each, candelas, 24 to the pound, tortidos, 2 ells in 
length, and weighing 51b. each, with smaller ones of different weights, some of which 
had the appellation *' prikette,'* being 12 in. long, and weighing 8 to the pound. 
<* Item, candele que vocantur perchers continent in longitudine xv. pollic*: unde xviij, 
perchers pond* j,li, cere** These appear to have been used at the Prior's table. They 
are thus mentioned in the metrical treatise de Officiariis in curUs Dominorum, XVth 
cent, under the head *' de candelario, of the chandeler,** 

*' M torches, and tortes, and preketes con make, 
Perchours, smale condd, I vnder take.*' Sloane MS. 1986, f. 46, v^. 

Digitized by 




vel petrocilium, vel petrocili- 

nuMy UG. in petros. 
Perdycle, precyous ston.^ Ethi' 

teSf c. F. 
Peere, frute. Pirum. 
Perb, tre. Pirus. 
Peerb apple, Pirumpomum. 
Peere, metche. Par (compar, h.) 
Pere, or pyle of a brygge, or 

other fundament. Pila. 
Perre, perle.2 Margaiita. 
Per RE, drynke. Piretumy necc. 
Peretre, herbe (or petyr, infra; 

peretyr, p.) Peretrum. 
Perfeccyone. PerfecHo. 
(Perfourmyn, supra in par- 

fourmyn, p.) 
Peryle. Periculum, 
Peryle of lyfe. Discrimen, cath. 

(Perkb, or perche, ntprch k. h. p. 

Pebrle. MargaritOy granulunh 

Pebrle, yn the eye.^ Glaucoma^ 


(Perloynyn, idem quod pur- 

loynyn, h, p.) 
P«rmutacyon, or ful changynge. 

Permutyn*, or holy chawgynn. 

Perpoynt, beest Tor poork-poynt, 

injra^y HistrtXy c. f. 
PERscHYN(perchyne, s. perisshen, 

p.) Pereoy cath. periclito. 
(Persid, k. h. p. Perforatus.) 
(Persynge, or boryng, k. h. p. 

1 Aetitei, from deritf, aquila, Bekitei, as stated in Trevisa's version of GlanTiUe, 
B. xvi. 0. 38, is a stone of red colour found on the coasts of India and Persia : it was 
supposed to be of two kinds, male and female, and two were always found in the nest of 
the eagle. It was accounted to have singular virtues in parturition, in augmenting 
wealth and affection, in keeping a man sober, and as a charm against poisoned food. 
See also the metrical Latin treatise on the virtues of gems, attributed to Marbodeus, 
Harl. MSS. 80, f. 100 : 321, f. 68, v«. There was another red stone called perides, 
according to Glanville, which cast forth fiery sparks, and when held fast, burned the 
hand ; possibly the same which is here designated as the pbrdtcle. 

« Pearls appear to have been considered as precious stones, their origin being im- 
perfectly known ; and hence, probably, the synonym perbe, from the French perHf is 
here given. ** A perle stone, marffariia.** cath. ano. ** Peerle, a stone, perU.^* 
PAL80. The following passage occurs in Trevisa^s version of Yegecius, Roy. MS. 
18 A. XII. : '* There is neyther games ne gamementes, golde nor siluer, so shynyng 
of precious stones ne pery, )>at makethe our ennemyes subgettes, ne obedient vnto us, 
but only drede and doughtenesse of dedes of armes.'* B. i. c. 13. Lydgate says, in 
one of his minor poems, 

•* When thou art fryke and in thy flowres. 

Thou werest purpure, perreye, ore palle." Make Amendes. 
See also Vis. of Piers PI. v. 5618 ; Cant. Tales, v. 2938, 5926. 

s Olaconia, its. and 8. The term glaucoma, derived from the Greek yXav/cfi>/Mi, 
is rendered by Elyot <* an humour in the eyen, lyke christall, whiche letteth the 
syght ;** and Gouldman observes, *' It seemeth to be the pin and web.*' " Gratia, a 
perle in an eie." if ed. " A perle in y* ee, epifora,*' cath. ano. '* Epiphora, a 
perle in y^ eye." ortus. ** Peerle in the eye, maille, Hawe in the eye, pailie,'* 
PALSO. ** Maille, a web in the eie.*' goto. Compare sttante. 
* See pooRK pOYKT, hereafter. ** Porkcpyn a beest, pore eirpin,** palsg. 

Digitized by 




PersonE} or o manne (man alone, 

K. p.) Persona. 
Persone, curate. Rector. 
Persowre (or wymbyl, injra,^ 

Terebellumt c. f, (terehrum^ s.) 
Pertryche, byrd. Perdix. 
Pervenke, herbe. Pervenca. 
Pees. Pajp. 

Pese, fiiite of come. Pisa. 
Pescodde. SiUquay cath. 
Pesyble. Paci/icus. 
Peesyd, or qwemyd. PactficatuSf 

pacatus, c. v. (placatus, p.) 
Peesyn, or styUyn of wrethe.* 

Pacificoy placo, paeo. 
Peesynge, or qwemynge. Pa- 

(Peske, or peche, fnite, supra; 

peesk, s. peshe, j. Pesca, 

pomum Percicum.) 
Pes telle, of flesche. Pestellus. 
Pes TEL, of stampynge. PikLy 

pistillusy pisteUusy cath. et uo. 

in pinso. 
Pestylence. Pestilencia. 
Petycote.2 Tuniculoy ug. in 

Petyr, propyr name. Petrus. 

Petyr, herbe (or peretre, supra ; 

pertyr, p.) Peretrum. 
Pewtyr, metalle. Electrumy se- 

cundum communem scolamj sed 

pocius diceretur stannumy vel 

Pewtrere. Electuarius, vel 

stannarius, cath. 
Pyany, herbe. Pionia. 
(Pycture, or portratowre, infra. 

Pykare, lytylle theef. Fur cuius ^ 

veljurunculus, latrunculus ; et 

inde furcula, Sfc. formantury 

ut supra in mychare. 
Pychare, pot (pycher, or pychar, 

8.) Urnay c. f. olluloy cath. 

amulay cath. picariunh comm. 

picharius, brit. /nnco, kylw. 

et COMM. 

Pye, bryd. Pica. 

Pyb, pasty. ArtocreOy peistillulus, 


Pye baker.* Cereagius. 
Pygge, gryce. Porcellusy et alia 

supra in G. gryce. 
Pygmew (pygme, s.y Pigtneusy 


^ — stynyn, or wrethe, ms. '* To pese, eompanere, mitiffare, juieifleare, sed^re, 
sopire,** cath. ano. *' I pease, I styll one, le rapaUe,** palso. 

* The petticoat, at the time when the Promptorium waa compiled, was a garment 
worn by men: thus in Sir John Faatolfe's wardrobe, 1459, under tunice^ occur '*j. 
pettecote of lynen clothe, stoifyd with flokys : j. petticote of lynen clothe, withought 
slyyes.'* Archseol. xii. S53. Herman says, *' One maner of correction of the sowdiours 
was that they shulde stande forthe in the host in theyr pety cotis, tunieati,** Amongst 
the Privy Purse Expenses of Henr. VIII. 1533, occurs a payment to a London tailor 
*' for a doubelet, and a pety cote for Sexten,*' tiie King's fool. ** Petycote, cortent 
simple, cotte single , ehemite de blanchet,^'* palso. Duwes, in his Introductorie to 
teach the Lady Mary the French tongue, gives, under women's attire, " the kyrtell, 
lecoraet: the kyrtell, la cotielette: the petycoat, la cotte simple.*^ In 1582, petticoats 
appear in the Custom-house rates as an article of import : ** Peticotes, knit, of silk, the 
doz. £\^, do. knit, of wul or cottin, the dosen, 30«." In the time of James I. petticoats 
of silk were still rated at 20«. each. 

3 Coragius, ms. Ceragius, s. ** Cereagius, pistor qui ad modum cere deducit 
pastam,** cath. Ck>mpare pastlbbb, aupra, p. 385. 

* **A peghte, pigmeus.** cath. ang. According to Jamieson a deformed and 

Digitized by 



Ptionb, yonge dove. Columhella. 

Pyk, or pycHe (or terre, infra.y 
PiXipissay c. F. et cath. pis- 
scuraroy cath, ug. {depissa, p.) 

Pyke, fysche. Dentrixy c. f. lu* 
ciui, c. F. luptUy c. F, 

Ptke, of a staffe, or o|>er lyke« 

CuspUj stigUy c. F. 
Pyke, of a schoo.^ Liripiumy 

Dice, {liripipiumy p.) 
Pyke, or tyynde of yiyne (or 

prekyl, infra in T.) Camiccu 

dimiautiTe person is called in the North a picht, and the lower orders still designate hy 
this term the supposed race of pigmies. Several remarkable relations illnstratiTe of the 
ancient popular belief in such supernatural beings are given by the old historians, such 
as that of the priest EUdorus, recounted by Giraldus, Itin. Camb. i. c. 8 ; the account 
of the demons called in England Poriuni, and in France Nepiuni, according to Genr. 
Tilbnr. Ot. Imp. Dec. iii. c. 61 ; the extraordinary tale of Rad. de Coggeshale re- 
specting the boy and girl discovered near Wolpit, in Suffolk, and kept for a long time 
by Sir Rich, de Calne, at Wikes, which are described as having had the human form, 
but wholly of a green colour, and as having been led by the sound of bells to emerge 
into the rays of the sun from their land beneath, where twilight reigned, and everything 
was green. Roy. MS. 13 A. XII. f. 73, v<>. See KeighUey's Fairy Mythology, and 
compare elf, tupra, p. 138. 

* " Pis, pycche, or pycke." med. *• ViVke, pix, bitumen. To pykke, bituminare.^* 
CATH. ANG. Aug.- Sax. pic, bUumen, 

* " A pyke of a scho, or of a staffe, rostrum^** cath. ano. Ldripiphtm usually 
denotes the hood with a long appendage, which, as Knyghton describes it, was twisted 
around the head ; but here it seems to be synonymous with poleine, or cracowe, the 
proper appellation whereby the singular long-peaked shoe, which was in fashion during 
the early part of the XVth cent., was known. These terms are supposed to be derived 
from the ntshion having been introduced from Poland, and Cracow, its metropolis, 
possibly by some of the suite of Anne of Bohemia, Queen of Ric. II. Will. Malmsb. 
however, states that among the effeminate habits of the times of Rufus, '* ustu cat- 
cwrum cum arcuatis aeuleu inventus :" the pouleines were also much in vogue in France 
during the reign of Charles V. and forbidden in 1340 and 1365. The monk of Evesham, 
in the Life of Rich. II. ed. Hearne, p. 53, relates the indignity that was shown in the 
diocese of Oxford to the messenger of Abp. Courtenay, in 1384, when he was compelled 
to eat the prelate*s mandate, seal and all ; but in retaliation the Archbishop's adhe- 
rents *' sciderunt cracowys de sotularibus aliquorum de familid BpL Oxon. et ipsos 
cracowis edere cogerunt,** In a treatise on the virtues of plants, written about the 
same time, the seed, or cod, of the Catsia fistula is described as of the *' gretnesse of a 
saucestre, and shap most lyk >e pyk of a crakow sho.'* Amnd. MS. 42, f. 60, v^. At 
the period when the Promptorium was compiled such peaked shoes were worn of an 
extravagant length, and the fashion was restricted by the statutes of apparel, during the 
reign of Edw. IV. when the length of *' pykes of shoen or boteux" was cut down to 
two inches. See Pari. Rolls, V. 505, 566 ; Stat, of Realm. Although no early sump- 
tuary statute is found whereby the use of such shoes was restricted to knights or 
persons of estate, they are mentioned repeatedly, as if accounted specially a part of 
Knightly equipment. Thus in the description of the comely attire of Sir Degore, it is 
said, ** His shone was croked as a knighte.'* v. 700. This Romance is supposed to 
have been written early in the Xlllth cent. The young Torrent of Portugal is de- 
scribed as craving knighthood from the King of Provens, who bids him engage in a feat 
of arms, ** and wyn the shone,'' v. 1117 ; having acquitted himself manfully, he comes 
at " myd-mete," and presents himself at the dels in his squire's habit, '*withoute 
Gouped shone," to claim the guerdon; v. 1193. Compare this passage with Vis. of 
Piers PL v. 12,099> where a description occurs of one who comes, as if to a just, after 

Digitized by 




Pykkforkr. MergHy cath. 

mergesy c. f. 
Pykets, mattokke. lAgo^ cath. 

marrch cath. in ligo. 
Pykeltnge. Purgulado. 
Pykerel. DentriculuSt luciUuSy 

KYLW. {dentricula, p.) 
Pykewalle (or gabyl, mprcu) 

Murtu conaltsy piramisf vel 

piramidaluy c. f. 
Pykbpeny.* Cupidinarius. 
Pykyd, as a staffe. Ctupidatus. 
Pykyd, or purgyd fro fylthe, or 

oJierthyngegreTOWs. Purgatus. 

Pykyl, sawce. Ptcula^ ktlw. 

(separiumy s.) 
Pykyn, or clensyny or cuUyii 

owte the on-clene.^ Purgo, 

purgulo {segi'egOy p.) 
Pykkyn, or a-noyntyn wythe pyk. 

PiceO^ CATH. 

Pykynge, or clensynge. Pur* 

Pykynge, of a staffe, or o)>er 

lyke. Cuspidacio, 
Pylche.5 Pellicium, pellicioy 

c. F. et UG. in pellof et cath. 

et KYLW. 

the manner of a knight who comes to be dabbed, to win hii gilt span, " or galoches 
y-conped." ** MiUett9, a coppid shoo." ortus. Ang.-Saz. cop, apex. A large 
namber of poleioe shoes, with the wooden pattens which were worn with them daring 
the XV th cent., in accordance with the fashion represented in the drawing in Cott. MS. 
Jnlius E. IV. designated as King John, and given in Shaw's Dresses, were discovered 
in London, Nov. 1843, and are in the possession of Mr. C. R. Smith, F.S.A. 

^ *' Cupidinariw^ i, mercator, nummoi cupietu, a coneytour of money.*' ortub. Id 
the Vision of Piers P. v. 14,448, the disorderly followers of an army are described as 
« bry boars, pyloars, and pyke-hameys." This last term occurs also in Towneley 
Myst. p. 9. The verb to pick, as used by the old writers, has, amongst varions signi- 
fications, that of obtaining anything by mean, onderhand proceedings, or pilfering. 
Thns Gaat. de Bibelesworth says, 

** E9ckmut flatour (losenioar) ke seeiflater, 

Trop ttet ben eepetuker (piken.)*' Arnnd. MS. SSO, f. S99. 

'* Lene thy fiaterynge wordes, that goth abonte to pyke a thanke {verbis ad graiiam 
eomparatis.y* robm. See Nares. 

* ** I pyke» or make dene, U net toy e, I praye yon pyke my combe. I pyke saffome 
or any flonre or come whan I sorte one parte of them from ati other, le etpluche. All 
men can nat pycke saffron, some men mast pyke pesyn." palso. Chancer oses 
this verb, speaking thus of the sprace Damian : ** He kembeth him, he proineth him 
and piketh." Marchant's T. v. 9885. Again he describes the gear of the five artificers, 
who were clad in the livery of a great fraternity, as *' fnl freshe, and newe — ypiked." 
Prol. V. 367. See Nares, v. Picked. Bnllinger, in his 40th Sermon on the Apocalypse, 
inveighing against the Roman clergy, says, ** They be commed, and piked, and very 
finely apparelled, delightyng in wemens jewels, wearing costely garmentes." There is 
apparently an allnsion to birds, which set the plumage with the bill. A.-S. pyoan, eruere, 

* " A pilch, or pylch, properly a farr gown, or a garment of skins with the hair on. 
6ax. pylce, toga pelUcea. A cyrtell of wollen, and a pylche. Polychr. li. vii. c. 4. Cled 
in pilches, peilibue. Doogl. f. 175. Island, pyls, veetie muliebrie. A pilch, a piece of 
flannel or other woolen put under a child next y* clout is called in Kent a pilch. A 
coarse shagged piece of rug laid over a saddle for ease of a rider is in our midland parts 
called a pilch.** Bp. Kennett*8 Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033. In Norfolk a flannel 
wrapper for a child is called a pilch. See Forby and Jamieson. The term is used by 
Chanceri denoting a warm wrapper : Ftoverb against Covetise ; it occnn also in Creed 

Digitized by 




Ptlcrafte, yn a booke (pile- 

crafte, k.)* Asteriscus, c. f. 

paragraphtUy c. f. et UG. in 

gramma (Jurmiculch s.) 
Pyle, of a bryggys fote, or ojier 

byggynge (or pere, supra.) Pila, 
Pyle, of clothys (or other lyke, 

K.) on a presse. Panniplicium 

(cumulus f K.) 
Pyle, of weyynge.^ Lihramentum, 

CATH. Itbroy c. F. Qibramen, k.) 
Pyle, or heep, where of hyt be. 


Pylere. Columpna. 
Pyllery. Collistrigium, 
Pylet, skyn'. PelUs (cutisy p.) 
Pylgreme, idem quod palmer, 

supra; et proseUtusy c. f. 

(^peregrinuSf peregrinoy p.) 
Pylgrymage.^ PeregritMcio. 
Pyllyd, fro the barke. Decor- 

Pyllyd, or scallyd (shaled, s. 

skalled, p.)^ Depilatusy glabel- 

lus, CATH. (c)apitonsus9 c. f. 


of Piers P. ▼. 484; Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 154| ed. Halliwell. Sir John Mann- 
devile, describing the rich attire of the Tartars dweUing in Chatay, says, <*Thei 
clothen hem also with pylches, and the hyde with outen, habeni et peilieeas, guibue 
Mtuntur ex trantversitr in the French " et veetent dea pelliees.** Voiage, p. 398. In 
the Inventory of the effects of Roger de Kyrkby, Vicar of Gaynford, who died 1413, 
occurs ** vnvm pylche de stranlion, zx.*." Wills and Inv. Snrtees Soc. p. 56. Coats 
fnrred with '* stranlyne " are mentioned in another doonment, ib, p. 35. Amongst the 
forred garments in the Invoit. of the wardrobe of Hen. V. 1433, occur '* ij. pnlches de 
Cristigrey, iiij. pulches pur femmee, de grey," Talned at 30e. and 30«. ea(£. Rot. Pari. 
W. 336. Cazton says in the Book for Travellers, ** Me fyndeth forres of beners, of lombes, 
pylches of hares and of conyes ; (pliehotu de lieuree et de eonine,) Vedast the gray* 
worker (vairrier) soldo whilor to my lady a pylche of graye, and of good fiirres. Wan- 
bnrge the pylchemaker (pelletiSre) formaketh a pylche well {rrfaiete ungpliee,)** Bp. 
Ridley, in 1^ letter of farewell, quotes Hebr. zl. 37, as follows : ** Some wandered to and 
fro in sheep's pilches, in goats' pilches.'* " Pellieia, apilche, est guoddam indwmentum 
quod depelliejlit.*' mkd. ** A pylche, endromida, endromis, pellicium, reno, A pilche 
maker, pdlipariueJ* oath. ano. '' Peliipariumf a pylchery.'* ortus. '* Prtche (sic) 
of lether, peliee,** palso. Ck>mpare Dutch, Dan. and Swed. pels ; Germ. Pelz, &c. 

1 ** Paroffraphat pj\cnhinwTj(t)jnge.** med. ** Paraffriqfkue,Anffiieeti^paTgnite 
in vrytynge.** obtus. ** Pilkrow contraetum esse videtur, eorruptumque ex para^ 
grtqffho,^* minshku. *' Paragraphed a paragraffe, or Pill-crow, a Ml sentence, head, 
or title." COTO. '* A pilkcrow, v. Paragraph.'* oouldm. See Nares. Tusser com- 
mences his Points of Husbandry and Book of Huswifery wiA '* a lesson how to 
confer every Abstract with his month, and find out Huswifery Verses by the Pilcrow :" 
*' ^ In Husbandry matters, where Pilcrow ye find. 

That verse appertaineth to Huswifry kind ; 

So have ye more lessons, if there ye look well, 

Than Huswifery Book doth utter or tell.*' 

« In the Invent, of effects of Hen. V. 1433, occurs, " i/em, j. Pile pur poieer or et 
argent, prie vj^. viij^dJ' Rot. Pari. iv. 334. *'PiU: tribuchet h peeer, eorte de 
balance; pila,** RoauEFORT. 


^ Ptlltd signifies not only deprived of the skin, but worn smooth, stripped of hair 
or bald, as in the Creed of Piers P. v. 1665, where mention occurs of a *' pild pate." 
Compare Cant. Tales, v. 639 ; 3933 ; Cov. Myst. p. 384. Dowglai, the Glastonburjr 

Digitized by 




Pyllyn, or pylle bark, or oJ>er 

lyke. Decortico. 
Pyllyn, or schalyii nottys, or 

garlyk. Vellifico. 
Pylyol mounteynb, herbe. Pu- 

Pyleol ryal. Origonum. 
Pylowrb, or he J>at pelythe ojier 

menne, as catchepollys, and o]>er 

lyke. PilatoTy ug. in pinso^ de- 

predator,veipiUoi uo. inspolio. 
Pylwe (pyllowe, p.) Pulvinavy 

cervicaly pulvillusy plumacium 

{pulvinaciufn, s.) 
Pymentb, drynke.* Pigmentum^ 

nectar, mellicratum, c. f. 

Pympyrnol, herbe. Pimpinella. 

Pynne, of tymbyr (or pegge, 
suprd.) Catnllaf uo. w caveo, 

Pynne, of metalle, as yryne, or 
o|>€r lyke (or pryke, inft'o.) 
Spintrum, vel spinier, cath. 

Pynne, of an orlage, or oj)er 
lyke, schowynge Jie owrys of 
the day or of J>e nyghte (pyn, 
or other lyke, shewynge the 
owre in a dyall, h. p.)*^ Scio- 
time, c. F. et ug. in edo. 

Pynacle. Pinnaculunij pinna. 

Pynchar, or nyggarde, idem 
quod nyggard, eupra in N. 

monk, in his Chron. of England, speaks with contempt of " Maister Robert Baldokke, 
a fals piledde clerke of the Kinge's conrte.*' Harl. MS. 4690, f. 62 Y", and 63 ▼<". So 
likewise Shakspeare nses the epithet, 1 Hen. VI. 1.3, ** peel*d priest !" <* Pylled as 
one that wanteth heare, pellu, Pylled as ones heed is, pelU. Pylled scalled, tignettx,** 
PALSG. In this sense the following passages in the authorised ▼ersion of the Scriptures 
are to be understood: '* Go, ye swift messengers, to a nation scattered and peeled." 
Isai. xyiii. 3, 7. The word in the original signifies deprived of hair, plucked, con- 
sidered in Eastern countries the highest indignity. Compare Isai. 1. 6. Again, in 
Bzek. xxix. 18, it is said, '* Every head was made bald, and every shoulder was peeled." 
(depUatvMt Vulg.) The term is likewise applied to velvet or napped stuffs which are 
worn threadbare, shorn, or cut. Hall, relating the treachery of Humphrey Banaster, 
in betraying the Duke of Buckingham to Rich. III. says that the sheriff, having appre- 
hended the Duke, " in greate hast and euyll spede conueighed him appareled in a pilled 
blacke cloke to the cytie of Salsburie, where Kynge Richard then kepte his houshold." 
3 Rich. III. Again, he describes the rich attire of the royal henimen, who appeared 
in **coate8 of purple veluet pieled, and paned in riche cloth of siluer.*' 14 Hen. VIII. 

1 Ptntnbntb, MS. Pyment, k. h. s. p. Piffmentvm, or pimentum, wine spiced, or 
mingled with honey, called in French piment, was anciently in high estimation. See 
Kyng Alls. v. 4178, and Weber*s note. Chaucer speaks of it in Rom. of R. 60S7, 
Boeth. ii. Gower says of Love, 

'* That neuer pyment ne vemage 
Was halfe so swete for to drynke.'* Conf. Am. B. vi. 
Under the head nomina pertineneia promptuariot Harl. MS. 1002, is given " Nectar, 
pigmentum, pyment." ** Pyment, piment,** palso. Amongst the receipts of cookery 
in a MS. of the XlVth cent in the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, No. 1470, there 
is one entitled '* Pymte. Wyn, sucre yboilled togedere, gyngebred and hony, poudre of 
gynger, and of douwes, i-piht wi> [>omes gret plentee, and schal beon adressed in 
cofiyns of flour of chasteyns : }>e colour 30I0U wy> saffroun.'* 

2 From this description of the gnomon of a dial it appears that the term orlage de- 
signated, as in accordance with its derivation, not only a clock, but any indicator of 
time. ** Sdocerue ett $tUus potitue in circulo ad meiiendum horat vel/ormaa,** ortub. 

s *^ I pynche, I spare as a nygarde, ie fa^s du chiche, 1 pynche courtaysye, as one 

Digitized by 




Pynciiyn. Impingo, cath. 
Pynchynge (or nyggardshepe, 

supra.) Tenacitas. 
Pyndare of beestys (pynnar, p.)* 

Inclttsovy CATH. inclusariug, UG. 
Pynfolde. Inclttsorium, 
Pyn n yn, or put yn a pynfold. /n- 

trudo, deirudo. 
Pynyn, or languryn in sekenesse 

(or peynyn, ^wpra.)* Langueo, 

Pynnyn, or spere wythe a pynne 

(or festyn, p.) Concavillo 

(conclavo^ p.) 
Pyn YON, of a wynge. Pennula. 
Pynyonyd. Pennulatus. 
Pynote, fnite. Pinum. 
Pynot, tre. Pinut, 
Pynsonb.* Tenelloj cancer, c. f. 

et KYLW. cancellulusy kylw. 

(manualis, c. p., h. p.) 
Pynsone, to drawe owt tethe. 

Dentaria, UG. in demo. 
Pynsone, sokke/ Pedipomiia. 

doth that is nyce of coDdyscions, ie fayt U nyce.** palsg. Elyot renders •* aridnt 
homo, a pelt, or pynchebeke, a drye felowe, of whome nothynge maye be gotten.*' 
" Sordidus, ehichet (Pr.) a niggard, a palterer, a dodger, a peny father, a pinchpeny, 
one that will not lose the droppings of his nose.** Junius' Nomenclator, version by 
J. Higins. " Pinse-mailiet a pinch penny, scrapegood, niggard, penny- father." coto. 
" A pinch-fist, ctt/;i(/ma>i««; m'lfe Niggard. A pincher and piller, vide Piucker. A 
pinch -penny, /»arctt«,'' &c. gouldm. Forby observes that a very parsimonious eco- 
nomist is stiU called in Norfolk a pinch. 

' ** Angnriui, bedeUut, compuUor, inJustuM enactor, a pyndere or an haywarde." 
MBD. ** Teicuo, t. cattrare. to pynde. Teacua, a pynde-folde. To pynde, includere, 
trudere. A pynder, inclu»ariu», inclutor, inacior. A pynfolde, catabulum, teatuia, 
inciusorium," cath. ang. " To pin cattel, vide To pound. A pinner or pounder of 
cattel, inclutor,** gouldm. Amongst manorial or municipal offic als the pounder of 
stray cattle is still in some places, as in Warwickshire, termed the Pinner. Bp. Kennett 
gives the following remarks : ** To pynd, to pound or impound cattle, Dunelm. Sax. 
pyndan, includere. Hence in these midland parts the money that is given to the 
Hey ward, or to any person who locks and unlocks the pound gate, is called Pinne lock " 
Lansd. MS. 1033. 

^ The verb to pine is used not uncommonly in an active sense, as by Chaucer, R. of 
Rose, 35 11. ** To pine, punire, afficere, etc. ubi to punyschc." cath. ang. •* They 
^the priests) sleen thy sheep, for they pyenen them for hunger of their soule to the death." 
Complaint of the Ploughman, Fox, Acts and Mon. h?. 1360. ** I pyne one as men do 
theues or mysruled persons to confesse y* truth, le riue en aigneaux. Pynyng of a man 
in prisone, to confesse the trouthe, torture J** palbg. Ang.-Sax. pinan, eruciare; 
pinun^t tormentum. 

> ** A pynson, pedribriomita, a pes^ et brioe, menmra. et mitoe, gutta; quaei caleeua 
guttatut.'* CATH. ang. " Pedibomita, Anglice a pynson." ortus. «* Baillez mog 
met eafignouna, take me my pynsouns." Karl. MS. 219, f. 151, v<*. *•* Pynson sho, 
caffignon.*' palsg. Master Stanbridge renders ea/c«o/tft *' a pynson," and Elyot gives 
" Calceamen, a pynson showe, or socke ;" to which Gouldman adds another synonym, 
** a pinson or pump, calceamen,** &c. Duwes, in his Introductorie, composed to teach 
the Princess Mary the French tongue, gives ** womens raiments — the pynson showes, 
tet etchapine,** The derivation of this term is very obscure ; it denotes, possibly, the 
pumps, or high unsoled shoes of thin leather, which were commonly worn with pattens 
about the time when the Promptorium was compiled. A large collection of these, 
recently discovered in London, are in the possession of C. R. Smith, Esq. F.S.A. 
Pinsons are mentioned in the Howard Household Book, p. 314. 

** '* Pinsons" are named amongst various articles, chiefly of hard-ware, the impor- 

Digitized by 




Pytntb, mesure. Pintay sexta- 

riumf dicit Biblia libro Le* 

vitic, cap* 14*". 
Pyony» herbe, idem quod pyanye, 

supra; et poeniuy c. f. 
Pyparb. Fistulator. 
Pype (pjrp^t, s.) Fistula. 
Pypb, of orgonys. Ydraula^^ 

BRIT. vocabuloMus(ic)€h cantes, 

CATH. inplur, auUy ug. v. m A, 
Pypb, vessel, or haHe tunne. Se* 

nUdoUumy pipa. 
Pyppe, sekenesse.^ PituitOj cath. 

et uo. in pis. 

Pypyne, of vjrne, or grape (pe- 

pyne of wyne, p.)^ Acinus^ ug. 

vel acinumy cath. et c, f. 
Pypyn, wythe a pype. Fistulo, 

Jistulovj UG. injfbs. 
Pypyn, or 3yppe, as henn byrdys 

(3ippyn, as bryddys, K. H. yepyn, 

p.)"* PipiOy pipulOy CATH. 

Pypynge, of pypys. Fistulacioy 

Pypynge, crye of yonge bryddys. 

Pyry, or storme.* Nimbus, cath. 

et c. F. 

tation of which was forbidden by Stot. 3 Edw. lY. 1463. Stat, of R. II. 397. '* Pynsons 
of jrone, esiricquopers* " palso. The term seems to be a diminatiTe of the Fr. 

1 Praula, us. ydraula, s. Compare orgon ptpb, ydraulaj p. 369. 

s «« )>e pippe, pituita. " cath. ano. ** Pyppe* a sickenesse, pepye.** palso. In 
the version of Macer's treatise on the virtnes of herbs, MS. in the possession of Hugh 
Diamond, Esq., it is said that *' cerfoile y-dronke with mnlsa wole destroie )>e pippe.*' 
So likewise is it stated in Amnd. MS. 4S, f. 66: '* Chervel, j-dronkyn with muls, 
oftyn for-do)> )>e pippe.'' " I pjppe a henne or a capon, I take the pyppe from them, 
ieprens lapepit dune geline. Yonr hennes shall nener waze fatte tyll they be pypped." 

s In the earlier Wicliffite version Numb. vi. 4 is thns rendered : " Newe grapes and 
dried they sholen not eete, alle the daies in the which of auowe to the Lord thai ben 
sacryd ; what thing may be of vyn, of grape dried vnto the popyn (pepyn, al.) thei 
shulen not eete ;*' in the later version '^ grape dried til to the draf '* \uva pasta usque 
ad aeinum, Vnlg.) The marginal gloss is added, '* in Ebreu it is, fro the rynde til to 
the litil greynes that ben in the myddis of the grape." '* A pepyn or a grafte, acinus, 
fecinumt granum.** cath. ano. ** Pepin, a pippin, or kemell, the seed of frute, the 
stones of grapes.^' coro. 

* Gant. de Bibeles worth says, in the chapter ** de naturele noysedet bestes — crapaud 
kottHle^ reine yaille, tadde croaked, frogge pype)>.'* ** To pype as a bryrde (sic) 
pipiare,** cath. ano. ** Minurio, i. mimutum eantare, to pype as small byrdes.** 
ORTQS. ** Pepier, to peep, to cheep, or pole, as a yonng bird in the neast. Pepie- 
rment, the cheeping, or peeping of young birds, any such puling noise.*' cotg. Hence, 
perhaps, the phrase " at daye pype, h la pipe dujour.** palso. 

* ** Pyrry, a storme of wynde, ora^«, 6o9/<f« d«t<tfn/.*' palso. Hall, at the com- 
mencement of his Chronicle of 17 Hen. VI. says, '* What should I reherse the great 
tempestes, the sharpe blastes, the sodain piries, the vnmeasurable wyndes, the con- 
tinuall raynes, whiche fell and chaunced tliis yere in England/' W. Harrison, in the 
description of Britain prefixed to Holinshed*s Chron. i. p. 45, observes, speaking of 
islands on the Eastern coast, '' Forasmuch as a perrie of wind — caught hold of our 
sailes, and caried us forth the right waie toward London, I could not tarie to see what 
things were hereabouts." Cotgrave renders ' 7\mrbiUon, a gust, flaw, berrie, sudden 
blast or boisterous tempest of wind. Vent, a gale, flaw, or berrie of wind.** Se 
Nares, v. Pirrie, and Jamieson, v, Pirr, a gentle breexe : Isl. oyr, ventus seeundut. 

Digitized by 




Pyrne, of a webstarys loome 

(pyme or webstars lome, p.)* 

Pysse, or pysche. Urina, mthc- 

tura (minccioy p.) 
Pyss YN, or pyschy n. MingOy c ath. 
Pyssynge place. Oletuniy cath. 
Pyssynge vessel le. Manio- 

delta, (sic) cath. madulay c. f. 

madellumy cath. et ug. sca- 

phitmii uo. in scando* 
Pysmere. Formica, 
Pysmeryshylle. JFormicarium, 

CATH. (Jbrmicetum, p.) 
Pyspott, idem quod pyssynge 

vessel, supra. 
Pystyl. JEpistola. 
Pytte. Puteusy locus. 
Pyt, or flascbe wbere mekyl water 

standythe after a reyne (or 

plascbe, infra.) Columhusy c. f. 
Pytagru, idem quod ped^ru, 

supra; et stemma^ cath. (py- 

tagrwe or lyne or kinrede, Es^ 

temma, c F., p.) 
Pytawnce. Pietancia. 
Pyte. Pietas. 
Py t F A L L E. Decipulay avicipula^ 

COMM. et UG. V. in T. 
Pyt he. Medulla^ vel pulpa. 
Pythe, of a stalke.''^ Hilus^ cath. 
Pythe, of a tree. Hilum, ug. v. 
Pytyows, or fid of pyte (pyte- 

vous, H. pitiuous, p.) P(i)e'' 

ticus, compassivus. 

Pytyows, or niAille yn syjbte. 

Dolorosus, penosus. 
Place. Locus. 
Place, of dwellynge. Mansio. 
Place, or stede. Situs. 
Plage. Plaga. 
Playce, fysche. Pecten. 
Playstyr for sorys. Bmplastrumy 

cath. malagmOf cataplnsmuy 

cath. implastrumy c. f. epi- 

lema, ug. in epi. 
Playstyr for wallys (or pa(r)get, 

supra.) Gipsum^ cath. litura, 

pla^trumy comm. 
Playsteryd, as sorys. Caia- 

Playsteryd, as wallys. Gip- 

satus^ litatus {litus, p.) 
Pla(y)stryn sorys. Cataplcmnoy 

ug. in cathegoro. 
Pla(y)stryn wallys. Gipsoy c. f. 

lino, ut supra in pargettyn. 
Pla(y)sterynge of sorys. Ca- 

Pla(y)strynge of wallys. Li- 
tura, gipsatus. 
Playte, of a clothe. Plica^ cath. 

Playtyd. Plicatus. 
Playtyn. Plico, cath. 
Playtynge. PUcacio. 
Plane, iustrument (to makyn 

pleyn, h. p.) Leviga. 
Plane, tre. Platanus* 
Planete. Planeta. 

1 ** Pyme, or webstars lome, mestier d tisser.** palso. Dacange cites an ancient 
Glossary, in which /7anu« is explained to be ** inatrummtum textoris, lignum circa 
quod involvitur/ilum,** called also /lantfCtt^i. ** Pannus e^t in$trumentum textoris, a 
spytell, or a shoteli pynne, or a spole. Pannicula, dim, t. manicula textrieumt quia 
^us diacurtu panni texantur,^^ ortus. *' Panua is a weners roll, whereon the webbe 
of clothe is rolled or wounden." blyot. 

s Ptthb, or a stalke, ms. ** Hilus, putamen quod adheret fabe, vei medulla penne, 
scilicet illud tenue quod eat in medio penne." cath. **' )>e pythe of a penne, He, ilus, 
fkiKCt.'' CATH. ANO. ** Pythe of a stalke or of a tree, cuevr.*' palsg. 

Digitized by 




Plantd. Letngatus. 
Planyn. Levigo, piano. 
Planyngb. Levigado. 
Plank, boord. Planca^ cath. 

et UG. in platoSf plancula^ uo. 

pluteum, CATH. 
Plante, of a tre, or herbe. 

Plant€ty plantariuniy cath. 
Planteyne, or plawnteyn, herbe. 

Plantyd. Plantatut. 
Plantyn. Planto* 
Plantynge. Plantdcio. 
Plasche, or flascbe, where reyne 

watyr stondythe(or pyt,«ipra.)* 

Torrensy lacuna^ c f. coUuvio, 

vel col^ljuvium^ c. r,pla$setumy 


Plat, or pleyne. Planus. 
Plate, of armare. Squama, cath. 
Plate, of metalle. Lamina^ vel 

lama, cath. crusta^ cath. bro' 

teuniy vel hrateolay cath. 
Plate, of a fyyr herthe.* La- 

mina, repoctHumy c. F. repo- 

(fo)cilliumy CATH. 
Platers. Parapsisy rotundale, 

iCfUellch patina^ cath. 
Platly. Plane. 
Plaw, or plawynge. Bullkioy 

Plawyn', as pottys.* Bullioy 

Plawyn ovyr. ^fferveoy ehullio. 
Plauncherb.^ Planculoy cath. 

in planca. 

1 In the MS. in Sir Thoi. PhilHpps'i collection, as likewise in the printed editions, 
the following distinction is here made : Plasche, flasche, or broke : Tbmmti iaeuna, 
Plasohe, or flasch after a rayne : ColhnriOf eollumum. ** Plasshe of a wn!btr,flaequ§t," 
PALSO. Elyot speaks of an herb ** n-owynge in plashes, hauynge a lyttell stalke, 
whiche excedeth not fonre fyngers high. It is called Heraelian »yderUm. Nepeta, an 
herbe — which of some men is called wylde peny royalle, and groweth in plasiJiye 
gronndes." Harrison, in the Description of Britain, says that the preservation of 
fresh- water fish ** is pronided for by verie sharpe lawes, not onelie in onr riuers, but 
also in plashes, or lakes, and ponds." Uolinsh. Chron. i. 394. *< Lavage, a plash ; a 
peece of land surrounded or drowned up by water. PatomUUuy a plash or pnddle." 
GOTO. '' A plash, laeu9t lacuna.** govldic. Bp. Kennett gives '* Flashy waies, wet 
under foot : to plash in the dirt ; all plash'd, made wet and dirty. To plash a tra- 
veller, or strike up the dirt upon him. In the North ploshy, to plosh,*' &c. Lansd. 
MS. 1033. The word plash does not appear in Forby's Glossary as still retained in 
East Anglia ; it is used by Sir T. Brown, Vulgar Errors, B. iii. c. 13, where he speaks 
of the "polwygle." Compare Teut. plas, plasch, lacuna; /bita in qud ttai aqua. 
Hence, perhaps, may be derived, some names of {daces, as Flashet Farm, near Lewes ; 
Plashet, in the Essex marsh-lands ; Plaistow, Pleshey. 

< Compare hbrthb stok, or kynlym, p. S37» and ktnltnb, p. 275. 

' In Norfolk, according to Forby, to plaw signifies to parboil ; the phrase, give meat 
a plaw, denotes a slicht boiling. Ray, in the South and E^t Country words, gives 
<* To play, spoken of a pot, ketUe, or other vessel ftill of liquor, i, t. to boil ; playing 
hot, boiling hot. In Norfolk they pronounce it plaw." The word is used in the fol- 
lowing redpe for making vinegar, Sloane MS. 3548, f. 16, v*: '* Take a pot fol of 
wyne, and steke yt wele aboue >at no hynges go ynne nor owte, and put it ynne a 
cowdrun ful of water, and layt yt play longe Jvoin, and yt schal be gode ayselle sone.'* 
Compare oyyrplaw, p. 373. 

^ This term is taken directly from the French. ^ Plancher made of hordes, 
planehS.** palso. In a letter written dating the siege of Caistor castle, about 1459» 

Digitized by 




Plaunchbryd. Planculatus. 

(Plawnteyne, supra in plan- 
teyne, herbe, p. PlantagoJ) 

Plee, of motynge. P^i^um, cath. 

Plegge, as a wedde (or oostage, 
infra,) Ohsesy cath. vo*, 
CATH. pligiusy LaHnum est 
Anglie et non alibi* 

Pley. Ludus, jocus. 

Pley, or somyr game. Spec- 

Pley (or ioy, supra) )>at begyn- 
nythe wytbe myrthe, and end- 
ythe wytbe sorowe. Tragedian 
uo. in oda. 

Pley (or ioy, supra) fat begyn- 
nytbe wytbe (momynge and 
s.) sorow, and endyUie wytbe 
myrtbe.* Comedioy UG. in oda. 

Pleyare. Lusor. 

Pley A RE, )>at alwey wyl pley. 
Ludihundusy ludihunda. 

Pleyar, at tbe bal. PilUudiuSy 


Pleyfere.* Collusor. 
Pleyyn. Ludo. 
Pleyyn at the bal. PUiludo. 
Pleyyn buk hyde.* Angulo, 

c. F. in esangulatusy deliteo^ 

Plbyynoe. Collusioy lusus. 
Pleyynge garment. Ludixy 

UG. in ludo. 
Pleyynge place (pleyinge in 

place, p.) Diludiumy cath. 
Pleyynge thyngb, or thynge 

J>at menn or cbyldyr pley wytbe. 

Adluricuniy UG. in agri vel 

adros, Nota supra in laykyne. 
(Pleykstare, infra in wby(t)- 

star. Candidarius.y 
Pleyne.* Planus. 
PLEYNE,_place. Planicies. 
Plbynyn. Conqueror, causor. 

complaint is made that *' y* holys jat ben made for hand gnnnys ben scarse kne hey 
fro y* plawncher.*' Paston Letters, iv. 316. According to Forbyy a boarded floor is stlU 
called in Norfolk a plancher. Hence, doubtless, the term plansher-naiL See Jamieson* 

^ '* Comtd^t a toun song. Comedust a writer of tonn songns." mbd. *' Playe, an 
enterlnde,/arce. Play sport, earolUt deduitf esbat, Playe of sadde matters, morality, 
Commedy of a Christmas playe, commedit, Playe maker, faeteWf factiste. Player 
in a playe, parsonnage. Player or goer Tpon a corde, batellevr.** palso. 

3 In the account of Jephtha's daughter, as rendered in the Wicliffite Tersion, it is 
said) ** And whanne sche hadde go wi)> hlr felowis and pleiferis {sodalilmt, Vulg.) sche 
biwepte hir maidenhed in |>e hillis." Judges, zi. 38. *' Playfere, miffnon.'* palso. 
Fere, a companion, is a word used by Chaucer, as also the expression ''in fere/' in com- 
pany ; Cant. T. 4748, 48 14. Hall, in his relation of the death of James II. of Scotland, 
in 1460, says, that, having slain the Douglases, " thynking himself a kyng without 
either peere or fere,** he assembled a great army, and laid siege to Rozburghe castle, 
where he perished by the bursting of one of his own cannon, 38 Hen. VI. Ang.-Saz. 
foera, T^Mna soeius. 

s This ancient name of the sport of hide and seek has not been noticed by Strutt. 
'* All hidde, Jeu ou un se cache pour ettre trouvS des autres.** sherw. '* CUne- 
mupette, the game called Hod-mad-blind ; Harry-racket, or, are you all hid. Capifou, 
a play which is not much unlike our Harry-racket, or Hidman-blind.** coto. 

i Jamieson gives To pleche, or bleach ; Pleching, bleaching. 

' In the MS. pletnb is found placed between pleyfere and pleyynge ; possibly it 
had been vrritten pleyyn by the first hand. The King's CoU. MS. reads pleyin place, 
and pleyint. Plbyntn likewise occurs in the MS. ^tween plawyn and pleyyn, pos- 
sibly because it had been written originally pleyynyn. 

Digitized by 




Pleynt. Querimonieh querela, 
Plecke, or plotte.* PorciuncuUu 
Plente. Abundanciuy copich 

Plente, of fioitys. Ubertasy fer- 

Plentyvows. Copiosus^fertilUf 

Plentyvows, yn frutys (or other 

lyke, K.) Uhertuo9U9y cath. 

for tills ffocundus, p.) 
Plentyvowsnesse, %dem quod 

plente, supra, 
Plesawns, or plesynge. Com- 

placencic^ benepUtcitum, 
Plesaunt (or plesyng, k.) Com- 

placensy henepUicens, 
(Plesawntly, k.) PlacentsTy 

complacentery placa(bili)ter, 
Plesyn. Placeo, 
Pletare. Placitory causidicusy 

causarius, c. f. 
Pletyn. Placiiory cath. 
Pletynge. Placitacio, 
Pletynge howse, or place. 

Placitoriumy cath. 
Plyaunt (or beyn, supra^ or 

supple, injra,) Flexibilisy len- 

tus, c. F. 
Plyte, or state (plight, p.) Status, 
Plyghtyn truth E(plityn trwthe, 

K. trouthe, p.) 4^0, cath. 
(Plomere, or plumber, infra, 

Plot, idem quod plek, supra. 

Plow. Aratrum, carucay c, f. 
Plowbeem. Burisy c. f. temoy 

CATH. et UG. in telon, 
Plowynge, or erynge. Aracio 

{araturay p.) 
Plowlond. Carrucatay c, f. 
Plowlond, )>at a plow may tylle 

on a day. JugerumyC,jF,jwger, 
Plowmanne. Aratory carru- 

cariusy c, f. geo^'gicusy cath. 

gleboy c. F. 
Plowstert.2 Stinay cath. 
Plow wryhte. Carrucariusy 

Plovere (bryd, s.) PluviariuSy 

Plowme. Prunum, 
Plowryn, or wepyn. Ploroyjleoy 


Plowrynge, or wepynge. Plo- 
ratus^fletusy lacrinMcio. 

Pluk, or plukkynge. Tractus, 

Plukkyn bryddys. Excatherisoy 
UG. in sccUeoy deplumo, ex- 
penno (depennoy excatariso^ p.) 

Plukkyn, orpulle frute. Vellicoy 
CATH. avello, 

Plukkynge, or pullynge of 
fowlys. Expennacioy vel ex* 
pennatusy deplumacio, 

Plumbe, of leed. Plumbum, 

Plum BE, of wryhtys or masonys 
(plumme of carpentrye, or ma- 
sonrye, k. p.)* Perpendiculumy 
c, F. 

1 In the Master of the Game, Harl. MS. 5086, f. 47, v®, in the chapter on hare- 
hnnting, instractions are given in case the hnnter " sethat the hare hathe be at pasture 
in grene come, or in eny other plek, and hys honndes fynde of hire.*' Pleck is given 
by Cole, Ray, and Grose as a North-conntry word, signifying a place, and is likewise 
noticed by Tim Bobbin. Ang.-Saz. pltec, platea. 

3 ** Plowe handell, manehe. Plowe starte, manehe, Ploughe beem, gueve de la eharrue, 
mancheron,** palso. ** A ploghe handylle, stina,** cath. ano. Compare stert. 

' Plumbe, or wryhtys, us, Palsgrafe makes the like distinction between the car- 

Digitized by 




Plumbe, of schypmen. Boliduy 

vel bolisf c. f. 
Plumber, or plomere. Plum- 

Plumtre. Prunus. 
Plunket (coloure, k. p.)* Ja^ 

(Pod AG RE, or potacre, tn/ra, seke- 

nesse. Pot(zgra.) 
(PoDEL, or poyel> slothe, infra* 


PoETE. Poeta. 

PoETRYE, Poetria. 

PoYNTE. Punctuiy CATH. vel 

punctuniy CATH. 
PoYNTE, of a scharpe toole (poynte 

of egge, or, &C s.) Cuapisy 

mucroy pennuniy cath. et c. f. 
PoYNTEL/ Stilusy graphiumy 

CATH. vel graphiusy cath. 
PoYNTYD, or prykkyd. Punc- 

tatus (punctu$y p.) 

penter'i plumb-line, "rifflet,** and the mariner's lead, ^*plomb de sonde.** The 

flummet was used in ancient times as an instrument of torture, and also as a weapon, 
t is said in the Golden Legend that '' the Provost of Rome dyde so bete St. Urban w* 
plummettes." Horman remarks that '* Champyons smyte at eche other with plum- 
met) of leed sowed in leather.'* 

1 ** Plonkete," or in another MS. '' blunket,'* occurs in the Awntyrs of Arthure, and 
is explained by Sir F. Madden as signifying a white stuff. 

^* Hir belte was of plonkete, withe birdis fnlle baulde." 

In Mr. Robson's edition '^blenket," st. xxiz. ; possibly the white stuff called in French 
blanehet. ** Ploncket colour, 6/ev." palso. *' C««tt(«, graye of colour, or blunkette. 
Seyrieum, blonket colour, or light wachet. Veneiutt lyghtblewe, or blnnket." elygt. 
^* Ckmieurperif skie colour, a blunket or light blue." cotg. The old Gloss on Spenser's 
Sheph. Cal. May, explains it as signifying grey. See Nares, and Jamieson, v. Bloncat. 
> The poyntel, formed of metal, or other hard material, was used like the Roman 
ttilui for writing upon portable tablets, or writing-tables. It appears in the well- 
known portraits of Chaucer, and is appended by a little lace to the lowest of three 
buttons which senre to close the fent of the collar of his gown at the throat. Copies 
of this interesting portrait are found in Roy. MS. 17, D. vi., f. 90, t* : Harl. MS. 
4866, f. 88 ; Lansd. MS. 851, and Add. MS. 5141. The last has been taken as the 
subject of a plate in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations. Chaucer describes the Limitour 
in his progress, who preached and begged alms as he went, whilst his attendant was 
furnished with 

<* A pair of tables all of ivory. 
And a pointel ypolished fetisly. 
And wrote alway the names, as he stood, 
Of alle folk that yave hem any good." Sompn. Tale, v. 7334. 

A beautiful ivory pointel, of the workmanship of the earlier part of the fourteenth cen- 
tuiT, formerly in the Du Sommerard Collection, is preserved in the Mus^e des Thermes, 
at Paris. It is stated in the Golden Legend that '* a grefe (or greffe) is properly called 
a pointell to wryte in tables of waxe.'* St. Felix was kiUed by his scholars therewith. 
Horman, in his chapter on writing, mentions the various materials of which pointels 
were formed : '* PoyntilUs of yron, and of siluer, bras, boone, or stoone, hauynge a 
pynne at the ende, be put in theyr case (jffraphiario.y* ** PoynteU or caracte, etplmgue 
d%ferV PAL80. Bishop Kennett, in his Glossarial Collections, gives '' Poitrel, a stile 
or writing instrument, with one end sharp, and the other broad." Lansd. MS. 1033. 

Digitized by 




PoYNTYD, or peyntyd, or por- 
trayed. Pictus. 

PoYNTON, or pawson, yn redynge. 

PoYNTON, or portrayyii (or 
peyntyn, supra,) Pingo {de- 
pingo, K.) 

(POYNTYN, K. P. PunCtO.) 

PoYNTYNOE, or prykkynge. Punc- 
tticio (pri9(icio, s.) 

PoYNTYNGE, or pawsynge in re- 
dynge. Punctudcioy pausado. 

PoYNTYNGE, or portrayynge (or 
peyntynge, aupra.y Pictura. 

PoYNTOWRE, or peyntoure. Pic* 

PoYSE. Poema. 

PoYSONE. Intojncum, mortife- 
rum, venificum, c. f. vii-us. 

PoYSENYD. Intoxicatus, virw 
lentusy c. F. 

POYSENYNGE. Itltoxicacio. 

Poys(n)yn, supra in impoysyn, 

in I? (Intoxico.) 
PooKE (or poket, or walette, tn- 

Jra.) Sacculus. 

PoKKE, sekenesse. Porrigo, c. f. 

et CATH. varioluSy vel morbulus, 

secundum medicos; cesia, va. 

V. in C. contagium, uo. v. 

m L. 
Pokbrokyn*. Porriginosus. 
PoKET, idem quod pook. 
Pol, or heed. Caput, 
Pol, of carpentrye (polere, or 

carpentrye, s,y Capitellum, 
Pool, or ponde of watyr."* Stag- 

Pool, or ponde for fysche kep- 

ynge. Vivarium, c. f. stagnum, 
Polayle, bryddys, or fowlys (or 

pullayly, infra,) Altilis, c, f. 
Polayle, made fette. Altile, c. f. 
Pol AX. Pipennis, 
PoLBEREy come, idem quod hasty- 

bere.* ( Trimensis,) 
PoLKAT, idem quod fnlmere.^ 
Pole, longe rodde. Contus,per' 

tica, c. F (contortus, p.) 
Poleyne.7 Troclea, 

chesia, cath. trochea, cath. 
PoLLYD, or forcyd. Capitonsus, 

> Poyntyiige, or portarjiige, ms. portrayynge, s. portrayinge, p. 

< Thia word is plaoed in the MS. amongst the Tcrbs between Poyeloo (We, Po)>elon ?) 
and Powderon. The word appears to have been misplaced ; the reference also is erro- 
neously given in the MS. to the word impoysyn, instead of inpoysyon, or poysnyo, as 
written in the MS. under the letter I. See p. 262. 

> This term seems here to designate the capital or head of a pillar, which in like 
manner was called in French chef. In the Catholicon it is said that **capitella du 
euntur que tuperponmniur eolumnis, quia eolumnarttm tunt capita, qnoH. super collum 
caput I que Grece dicuntur epUtilia.*' 

* PooLB, or poot, MS. ponde, k. s. p. 

* See the note on hasty bbrb, p. 228. This appears to have been a kind of barley 
which ripened in the third month after it was sown, and thence, probably, called trimensis. 

* PuLKAT, MS. Polcat, sec fiilniarde, k. 

7 The first of the Latin words here given is written in the MS. tardea ; the other 
MSS. and Pynson's edition give troelea, but neither of these words is found in the 
Catholicon, in which is given the following explanation : ** a trochos dicitur trochea, 
i. torcular ; vel rota modica super puteum ; vel iltud quod apponitur malo navist quia 
kabet rotulas per quae Junes trakuntur.*' The Ortns gives '* TVoelea^ a wynda^ or 
pressoure, vel parva rota s%^er ptUeum.** The term pulley (Fr. poulie) is written by 

Digitized by 




PoLLYNGE. Capiionsioy capi- 

PoLYPODYE,berbe.Po/iporfta, c. f. 
PoLKE (of watyr, k.) or pul yn a 

watur (pulk water, h. polke or 

pulke water, p.)* Vortex^ c. F. 
PoLWYGLE, wyrme.2 
PoMEGARNET, frute. Pomum 

granatum^ vel malum grana* 

PoMEYS, or pomyce. PomeXy 

CATH. fingitty c. F. (finga^ p.) 

P0MEL9 of a swerde, or knyfe. 

Tolas, Dice, et c. f. 
PoNDE, idem quod pool, supra. 

{Stagnumy vivarium^ p.) 
PoNYAWNT. Acutusy ocer. 
PoNYET, of a sleue (ponyed, p.)* 

PremanicOy mantusy c. F. (^et 

CATH. maricusy s.) 
PooPE. Papa. 
PoPELERE, byrd (or schovelerd, 

infira.y Populus. 
PoPLEREy or popultre. Popukut. 

Chancer '* polive,*' according to the reading which has been usnallj giren. Squire's 
Tale, V. 10,948. Polbtnb may possibly be taken from the diminutive /nm/ion, a little 
pollej. In Pynson's and the other editions the word is printed Poleyn. Palsgrave 
gives *' Pullayne, ;/oo//ane." 

* VertMf MS. vorieXf p. '* Varies ni revolutio aquamm.** ortus. 
*' Ther was swiike dreping of the folk, 

That on the feld was neuere a polk, 

That it ne stod of blod so fol, 

That the strem ran intil the hnl." Havelok, v. 2685. 
*' Serobs, idem gu. foeea, a deche or a polke." Harl. MS. 1003, f. 148, V*. Sir 
Thomas Browne, in his account of fish taken on the coast of Norfolk, speaks of 
congers, which, in frosty weather, upon the ebb of the tide, are left in *' pulks and 
plashes'' on the Northern coast. The word is still used in Norfolk and Suffolk, and 
signifies a hole full of mud, a shallow place containing water. See Forby and Moor. 
Ray includes it amongst North-country words, and Jennings gives it as retained in 

3 Sir Thomas Browne, in his Vulgar Errors, makes mention of "the AquatUe or 
water.frog, whereof in ditches and standing plashes we may behold many millions every 
spring in England,*' produced from spawn which becomes '' that which the ancients 
called Gyrinus, we a Porwigle, or Tadpole." B. iii. c. 13. Forby gives Purwiggy, a 
tadpole, and poUiwig, which he considers to be a corruption of the former word. Moor, 
however, states that the tadpole is called a poUywiggle in Suffolk. The fishermen of the 
Thames have giveb the name polewig to the spotted goby. Yarrell, i. 258. The tadpole 
was also called in former times a po^d, or pole-head. In the Latin-English Vocabu- 
lary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 55, v^, occur under ** Nwmna vermiwn, Lumbrietu, 
Pole hede ; Hullut, (?) Polhed." Palsgrave gives '' Poled, a yonge tode, cauetot, 
Polet, the blacke thynge that a tode cometh of, cauetoi,** and eaveeot is rendered by 
Cotgrave ** a pole-head, or buIUhead, the little black vermine whereof toads and frogs 
do come." 

3 ** MantuSt a myteyn, or a mantell.'* ortus. '' A punjet, permanica " («te.) oath. 
ANG. ** Poygniet for ones sleues, poi^net," palso. Matilda, wife of John de 
Smeeton of York, tanner, bequeathed, A.D. 1402, ** (;'. JIammeola de Cipree, etj, 
lampas volet, etJ, par de ponyets de scarlet." Testam. Ebor. i. 289. Compare curPB, 
p. 106, and mttbtnb, p. 340. 

* Sir Richard de Scrop, in 1400, bequeathed **aulam de poplers tentam, et ledum 
integrum cum coeierit de rubeo, cum poplers et armie mete broudatum,** Test. Ebor. 

Digitized by 




PopT, weed. Papavevy codia^ 

c. F. nigella, c. f. giL 
PoPYN, chylde of clowtys (or 

moppe, supra.y Pupa, cath. 
PoPYN lAY, byrd, P(s)itacusy 


PopuL TRB, idem quod poplere, 

PoRCHE. Porticusy UG. vettibu- 

lurriy c. F. et cath. 
PoRCYONE. Porcioy quantitas. 
Pore, hole yn a beestys flesche. 

Pore, nedy. Pauper ^ codrue 

(indigefis, s. p.) 
Pore manne, or womann. Pau- 

per, pauperculusy paupercula* 

PoRRE, or purre, potage (pese 
potage, s.)2 Piseumy velpisea, 


PoRET, berbe (or leek, supra.) 
Parruniy c. f. et in plur. porri, 


PooRGYN, or clensyn. Purgo, 

PoRYN IN. Infundo. 
(PoRYN owT, K. SJfundo.) 

PORYNGE YN*. Infimo, 

PooRK, flesche. SuiUa, c. f. 

PooRK POYNT, beste (or perpoynt, 
supra; porpeys, k. porpoynte, 
s.) Histrixy cath. et c, f. 

PooRT, of cowntenawnoe. Geetue. 

i. 276. This bird, as likewise the parrot, seems to have been a faTOorite ornament, in- 
trodnced on tapestry or embroidered works. It is again mentioned in the Inventory of 
Sir John Fastolfe's effects, taken 1459, ''Clothxs of Arras, and of Tapstre warke. 
Item, ij. clothis portrayed AiU of popelers ;*' and again, in one of the bed chambers, 
" Item, j. hangyng clothe of Popelers." Archnol. xxi., pp. S58, 264. It appears sub- 
sequently that the popelbrb was considered by the compiler of the Promptorium to be 
the same as the shoveler-dnck. Anas clypeata, Linn. ; and it may be observed that in 
medieval decorations such birds were not nnfreqnently represented, as appears by the 
Caistor inventory, above cited, the vestments discovered at Durham, attributed to St. 
Cuthbert, and the entry in the Bur8ar*8 accounts, given by Mr. Raine, respecting an 
altar there, on '* U rerdos " of which were depicted the eider-ducks, termed the birds 
of St. Cuthbert. 

^ Forby gives the words Poppin, a puppet, and poppin-shew, as still retained in use 
in Norfolk. He supposes it to be derived from " Popitiy spruce, neat, bnske, prettie.*' 
coTO. It may more properly, perhaps, be derived from povpoHt a baby. '* Popet for 
childre to play with, povp^e.** palsg. 

' *• Porray, porreta, porraia,** oath. ano. This term implies generally pease 
pottage, stiU called in French purte, and the treatises on ancient cookery contain 
numerous recipes for its concoction. See the instructions of the chief master-cook of 
Richard II., regarding «* Perrey of pesone,'' Forme of Cury, p. 39, and the recipe for 
'' Blaunche perreye,*' Harl. MS. 379, f. 25. It has, however, other significations. In 
the Canterbury MS. of the Medulla occurs "porrataf porrey,'* with this marginal ad- 
dition, attributed to Somner, ''s^so^^i^ ^7^ mete.'* According to the Ortus it seems 
to have denoted a pottage of leeks, **poratum est cibus de poris /actus, Angtiee por- 
raye ; *' and in a curious MS. at Middle HiU, formeriy in the Heber Collection, 8336, 
it appears that the dbh called ** rampaunt poree '* was chiefly compounded of pears. 
Poreta or poirata signify, according to Ducange, leek-pottage, and likewise the vege- 
table called beet, in French poirSe, or porrie. It is related in the Golden Legend that 
St. Bernard was so frugal that often he made pottage of holm leaves ; whereat a de- 
moniac being brought to him, the evil spirit thus reviled the saint: "Thou eter of 
porrette, wenest y* for to take me oute of my hous ? Nay, thou shalt not." 

' Histrkt usually signifies an hedge- hog, as in the Ortus, ** Histrix est animal 

Digitized by 




PooRT, havene,uifem ^(xibavene, 

Portage, of berynge. Portagiumy 

latura^ vectura, 
PooRT coLYCE. Antephalavica^ 

KYLW. secemiculum, 
Po RT E N A UNCE, of a thynge. Per- 

tinenciay in plurali exddie. 
PoRTERE. Janitor, portaritu. 
PooRTos, booke. Portiforium, 

PoRTOWRE. Portitory portator, 

gestor, caloy hajrdusy c. F. 
(PoRTRAYYN, OF peyntyfi, or 

poynton, supra, Pingo.) 
PoRTRATOWRE, OF pycture. Pic- 


Pos, or depos (wed, h. p.)* De^ 

Pose (or sneke, infra,y Caiar^ 

rusy c. F. corisoy c. f. 
PossESSYONE. Possessio, 
PosNET.* Urciusy Dice, urciolusy 

orcoy CATH. (urdnusy p.) 
PossoN, or scbowe forthe (pocyn, 

K. pressyn, or sbowen, p.) Pello. 
PossoN, presson, or scbowe to- 

gedur. Trudoy c. f. 
PossoT. Balductay cath. {ef- 

frotumy UG. s.) 
Poos T, of an bowse. Postis. 
PosTERNE, 3ate. PosHcum, c. f. 

COMM, posterulaypostictty cath. 

et C. F. pOSticUSy COMM. 

tpinosum, an vrchen.'* PaUgrave glTes ** Porkepyn, a beest,|M>re espm.** The porcupine 
appears to have been known in England at an early period : it is described by the ap- 
pellation girijp in the account of the park formed at Woodstock by Henry I., as giren 
by Will. Malms, lib. ▼. p. 161. He speaks of it as a native of Africa, and states that 
it was sent to the King by ** Wtllielmo d* monie PUlerio.** Stowe mentions also the 
*< porpen tines," and divers strange beasts which were sent from far countries, and pre- 
served in the royal park at Woodstock. In the original edition of Hamlet this animal 
is termed a ** porpentine,'* and the name occurs likewise in Machyn's Diary, 1552, 
edited for the Camden Society by Mr. John Gough Nichols, p. 31, where the crest of Sir 
W. Sidney is said to have been a ''porpentyn." 

> See Jamieson, v. Pose. 

^ In Norfolk a cold in the head is still, according to Forby, called a pose. This 
word is used by Chaucer, Cant. T. v. 4150, 17,011. The following remedy for a rheum 
is given in a manual of miscellaQeons ooUections, Add. MS. 12,195 : ** For the pose : 
Take smale note kernelys, and roost hem, and ete hem with a lytyl powder of peper 
whane thou gost to bedde.*' Andrew Boorde says, in the Breviary of Health, *' Coriza 
— in English it is named the pose, or reume, stopping or opilating the nosethrilles that 
a man can not smell," c. 91 ; and again, c. 306, *' of the pose or snyke : Rupia is the 
Latin word. In English it is named the pose." ** >e pose, brancua, caterrua, coriza.'** 
CATH. ANG. *' Coriza est morbus narittm, i. e. prefocatio^ Anglice the pose. Ca^ 
tarrus est fiuxus reumaiis jugis ex naribus, the pose." ortus. ** Pose in the nose, 
rime. Pose dysease, eaterre. You have caught y« pose, me thynke, you be so horoe. 
Sneke pose, rime. Ryme, the reume of the heed, rime.** palso. *' The pose, or 
rheum, or sickness in the head, coriza^ gravedo, catarrhus. That hath or causeth the 
murr, or pose, gravedinosus.** oouldii. *' Rheume, a catharre, pose, mur." coto. 
See Nares. Aug. -Sax. S^pose, gravedo, dolor capitis, 

> *• A posnett, area, orcicula, urceus.** cath. ano. " Aenuium, a posnet." ortus. 
** Posuet, a lytell potte.*' palso. ** Casole^ a posnet." coto. This term is thus used 
by Herman, *' Seth this in a possenet {anxilla) by hymself." Grose explained it as 
denoting a small iron pot with a handle on the side, and in the Craven Dialect it sig- 
nities a boiler. See Nares and Jamieson. 

Digitized by 




PosTYME, sekenesse. Apostema, 
PoTTE. Ollcty umay orca. 
PoTACRB, or podagre, sekenesse. 

PoTACRE, manne, or ^oman. Po' 

tagricusy comm. 4' 
PoTTARE. OllariuSfCV.Jigulus, 


PoTEL, mesure. Potellusy vel po» 
tellumy hguncuhiy cath. 

Potent, or crotche.* Podium, c. f. 

PoTSPONE, or ladyL Concus, Dice. 
cocleavy c. F. 

PowcE, veyne. Pulsus. 

PowcHE. Marsupium. 

PowDYR. Pulvis. 

PowDERYD, wytbe powder. Pul- 

PowDERYD, wythe salte. Salitus, 


PowDERYNGE, wythe powder. 

Power, or strengthe (strenkyjj, s.) 

Potestasy robuvy JhrtUudoy 

nisusy vigor. 
Powers, of auctoryte. Auctoritasy 


Po VBRTE. Paupertas, pauperies. 
PovERTE, and nede. Penuria, 

egestas (indigencia, inedioy in- 

opioy P.) 
PowLE, propyr name. Paulus. 
Po WMPERE, frute.2 Pomtttn/Jtnim. 
PowNE, of the chesse. Pedinus. 
PowNDE, of wyghte. Libra. 
PowpE, holstykke (hole styke, s.y 

Cdpulusy c. F. (copulusy s. cau- 

pulusy P.) 
PoYEL, slothe, or podel (pothel, 

H.) LcLcuna. 
PoYELON, or pothelyii, or grubbyn 

yn the erthe. FoditOy cath. 

Po WNSON (poyntyn, k. p.) Puncto. 
Pray. Preda. 
Prayel (pray3el, h. prayyle, s. 

praysell, p.p Pratellus. 
Prane, fysche. SHngus. 
Prank YD, as clothys.* PUcatus. 
Prankyngb. Pliccuno. 
Prank, of prankynge. Plicay 

Praty. Elegansyformosusy ele- 

gantulusy formulosus. 

^ " PotencCt a gibbit ; also a cmtch for a lame man." goto. See Dncange, v. PO" 
tentia. Chancer termed the "tipped ataf/* carried by the itinerant Limitour, a 
''potent/' Sompnonre*! Tale, 7358. Compare R. of Rose, 368, 7417; Vision of P. 
Plooghman, 5092. 

> Palsgrave gives " Poumper frute," without any French word. Parkinson describes 
the " Pomipyrus, the pome-peare, or apple-peare, which is a small peare, but roand at 
both ends like an apple.'* Compare pberb applb, pirumpomum, above, p. 394. 

' A pop-gun. CampuhiSf or caupuitu, properly signifies a small boat, formed of a 
hollow tree, '' eaupillus, lignum eavaium, quasi eymba,'^ according to Papias. See 
Ducange. *' Poupe for a chylde, PovpSe.** palso. 

* A little meadow, from the old French praieL Cazton says, in the Boke for Tra- 
Tellers, '*Rolande the handwerker shall make my pryelle {prayel^ Fr.) an hegge 

* Palsgrave gires the verb '* I pranke one's gowne, I set the plyghtes in order, t« 
meis le plies duns robe hpoynt, Se yonder olde man his gowne is pranked as if he 
were but a yonge man." Compare Grerm. Prangen, omatum arrogantius osten- 
dere, Wacht. ; Belg. Pronken. Spenser speaks of some who ** prancke their ruffes." 
PranJLed signifies, in Hampshire, dressed out finely, and to prenk, in the Craven 
Dialect, is to dress in a showy manner. 

Digitized by 




Pra WNCYNGE, or skyppynge. Sa^ 

liius (salius, s. p.) 
Precyn in (prencyn or precyn, 

w.) Ingero. 
Prechyn. Predicoy evangeUzo. 
Prbchyngb. Predicacio^ 
Prechowrb. Predicator. 
Precyows. Preciosus. 
Preciowsnesse (or preciowste, 

p.) Preciositas. 
Preciows stone. Gemnuiy cath. 

vel lapis preciosus. 
Prbef, or proof of a thynge. 

Probacio (iemptacioy p.) 
Preef, or a-say(y)nge. Exami- 

Prey A RE, or he that preyythe. 

Orator^ exoraior^ deprecatory 

oratrixf etc. 
Preyyd. DepreccUue, oratusj eX' 

Preyere. Oracioy supplicacto^ 

deprecacioy exoracio. 
Preyyn, or hesekyn (preyyn, or 

prey5yn, h. preyen or preysen, 

p.) Oroy supplicOf exoroy in- 

tercedoy obsecro. 
Preysable, or commendahle. 

Lauddbilisy commendabilie* 
Preys YD. Laudatus, comment 

Preysyn. Commendoy laudo. 
Preysynge. LatiSy laudacioypre^ 

conium (commendacioy p.) 
Prelate. PrelatWy prelatcu 
Premoster, why5te chanon (Pre- 

monster, h. p.) Premonstrensis. 
Preente (prend, k. preynt, s.) 

Effigies, impressio {signacu- 

lum, p.) 

Prentycb. Apprenticius. 
Preentyn. Inprimo {infigOy p.) 
Prees, or thronge. Pressura. 
Presawntb, 5y^. EncenniutHy 

nefrendicium, cath. excen^ 

nium^ KYLW. 
Pressb, or pyle of clothe. Pan- 

nipliciumy pressoriuniy cath. 

Pressb, for grapys, or o)>er lyke. 

(presse of lycoure, p.) Tor» 

cular, prelum^ c. r.pressoriunh 

Presedent. Presidens (prece* 

dens, p.) 
Present, or now yn thys place, 

or tyme. Presens. 
Presbntyn. Presento. 
Press YN. Premo, comprimoy 

pressoy cath. 
Presse downb. Deprimoy re- 

Pressyngb. Compressio. 
Preeste. Sacerdosy presbitery 

Preesthood. Presbiteratus (*a- 

cerdociumy p.) 
Presumptuowse, or holde, or 

malapert (oner holde, p.) Pre- 

(Presumptuowsnbs, k. Pre* 

sumptuositas.) • 
Pressure, idem quod presse. 
Prevyn, or provyn. Probo, 
Prevyn, or a-sayyn. ExanUnoy 

temptOy attempto. 
Prevyn, or chevyn, supra in C. 

chevyn (prevyn, or shewyn, 

supra in cheryn, 8,y 
Prevynge. Probacio. 

1 Esaraco, iis. Compare the verb prbytn, esamino. 

' Compare provyn, or chevyn, protperor: prow, or profyte. See also the note on 
CHBVTN, or thryvyn, rt^eo, p. 73. Sec Porby, v. Prove. 

Digitized by 




Prycb. Precium. 

(Pricynoe, k. prisinge, ?• Lid- 

Pryde. Superhiat Justus f eUudo, 

Prydyn, or wax prowde. Su- 

Pryk, or prykyl (prykkar, s.) 

Stimulus, stiga, cath. 
Prykke, merke. Meta. 
Pryke, or pynne. Spintrutny vel 

spintevy cavilla. 
Prykke, for pakkys. Broccusy 

U6. in bromus. 
Pryk A re, of bors. Cursitator. 
Prykyl (or tyynde, infra.) Sti- 

mulusyoculeus ; idem quod ipryk. 
Pryket, beest (prik, s.) 61- 

Pryket, of a candylstykke, or 

other lyke (pryket of a candell 

weyke, p.)* Stiga^ cath. 

Prykyn bors. Curstto. 
Prykkyn wythe a prykke, or a 

scbarpe tbynge, as bokys 

(prykkyn witb a prekyl, h.) 

jPungOy CATH. stimulo, 
(Prykkyn, or poynten, h. p. 


(Prikkyn, or puncbyn, as men 

do^ beestis, s. Pungo.) 
Prykynoe, of bors. Cursitacio. 
Prykrtmoe. Punctioy stimu- 

kunoy punctura. 
Prylle, or wbyrlegygge, as cbyl- 

derys pley (or spylkok, infra: 

priUe of cbyldrys pleyynge, k. 

wbyrgyg, s.)^ Griraculumt cath. 
Pryme. Prima. 
Prymere. Primarius. 
Prymerose. Primula^ eaten- 

dulay ligustrum, cath. 
Prynce. Princeps. 
Prynce, of prestys. Arabarcus, 

in Historid Scolasiicd ha* 

Pryyncesse. Principissa. 
Pryncypal. Principalis, pre- 

Princypaly.5 PrincipaUter. 
Princypalyte. PrincipaUtas. 
Pryowre. Prior. 
Pryowresse. Priorissa. 
Priowry (prioryte, p.) Prio- 

ratus (^prioritaSf p.) 
Prysare, or settar at price, yn a 

merket, or o)>er placys. Me- 

taxariusy c. p., lici{t)atory tojc- 

ator, CATH. 

1 Candlesticka in ancient times were not fashioned with nozzles, but with long spikes 
or prykets. Representations of such candlesticks are given in Archseologia, xiv. 279, 
XT. 402, xxiiL 317, zxviiL 441, Didron's Ann. Arch^ol. tome iii., and Shaw's Dresses 
and Decorations. In the description of the snpper, in the Awntyrs of Arthore, 
" preketes, and broketes, and standertis " are mentioned, placed at intervals on the 
table ; brochettes being tapers fixed, in the same manner as prykets, upon a broche, 
or spike. In the Memoriale of Henry prior of Canterbury, a.d. 1285, the term 
**prikett" denotes not the candlestick, but the candle, formed with a corresponding 
cavity at one end, whereby it was securely fixed upon the spike. Cott. MS. Galba, 
E. IV. f. 45. See the note on cbawndelbrb, p. 71, where '* preketes** are men- 
tioned amongst various kinds of candles. 

^ " Giraculum, Anglich a chyldes whyrle, or a hurre, cum quopueri Judwat,** ortus. 
In the Medulla, Harl. MS. 2257, it is rendered <* a pirlle.'' 

' This, and a few other words, written, as likewise the corresponding Latin terms, 
with the contraction p* — , are printed here m estenso, in accordance with the usual 

Digitized by 




Prysyn, or settyn a pryce.* 

Taxo^ metaxoy cath. licitor^ 

c. F. et UG. in taxo. 
Prysynge. Li(ci)tatiOf cath. 
Pryson (or presvn, h. p.) Car- 

cevy ergastulum. 
Pryson, or put yn pryson (pry- 

sonyn, k.) Incarcero. 
Prysonere (or presonere, h. p.) 

Incarceratusy incarceratch 

prisoy secundum Latinum An- 

Prysoner, takyn, and yeldyn yn 

warre. Daticius, c, f. (cap- 

Hvusy p.) 
Prysoner, takyn be strong^ hande, 

nott yolde wylfdlly. Mancepsy 

c. F, et CATH. capHvus. 
Pryvy chawmyr (chambyr, s.) 

Pryvy, or gonge (or kocay, 

supra*') Zjotrinoy cloacch ypo- 

dromiumy cath. et c. Ft 
Privy hate, yn mannys hert.^ 

Mistrumy c. f. et ug. in mistis. 
Pryvy, nowt knowyn (priuy, hid, 

K.) OccultuSy seer etas. 
Pryvy, yn vnderstondynge. Mis- 

ticust archanus, 
Privyd, or deprivyd. PrivatuSy 

orha^tusy c. f. 
Pryvyn, or depryvyii. Privo, 

orboy c. F. 

Privynge. Privacio. 
Pryvylege. Privilegium. 
Pryvyly. Secrete y occultey clan* 

culoy private, clam* 
Pryvyte. Misterium, secretum, 

Probleme, or rydel. Prohlema^ 

enigma^ c. f. 
Processe, yn cawse. Processus, 
Processyonal, or pr(oc)€88yo- 

Processyone. Processio. 
Procuryn, Procuro, 
Proof, idem quod preef, supra. 
Profycye. Prophecia. 
Profecyed. Prophetaius. 
Proferyn. Offero. 
P^OFESSYD. Professus. 
Professyon. Professio. 
Prophete. Prophetay videns* 
Prof yt ABLE. UHUsy prqficuusy 

commodusy cath. 
Profyte (or prow, infra, profy- 

teth, p.) ProfectuSy comnCodumy 

emolumentumy commoditas* 
Profytyn. Projicioy prosum. 
Profur. Oblacio* 
Pr OK EC YE. Procuracia. 
Proketowre (prokeratour, k.) 

Prokyrment. Procuracia. 
Prokryn, or styfly askyn.® Pro- 

cory procitOy cath. 

power of that contraction. In no case, howcTer, in the Harl. MS., where a word is not 
contracted, has the scribe written Pri — , but invariably Pry. 

1**1 prise ware, I sette a price of a thyng what it is worthe, le aprite, Medyll of 
y* you haoe to do, and prise nat my ware." palsg. ** Prisier : eiiimert en baa Lot, 
prisare.^* roquef. In the Epitaph on Philip Marner, who died 1587, and was buried 
at Northleach, this verb is used in the sense of to reward. 

** In lent by wyll a sermon he divised, 
And yerely precher with a noble prised/* 

2 Privy latr, ms. Preuyhate, p. 

* Skinner gives the verb ** to Prog, h Lat. procuraret** and the word has been 

Digitized by 




Prollyn, as ratchys (or purlyii', 

in/ra.)' Scrutor, 
Prollynge, or sekynge. Persc7*U' 

tacioy investigacio, scruHnium. 
Promocyone, or fortherynge in 

worshyppe, or goodys (in wor- 

shyp of godenesse, s.) Pro- 

Fro MPT A RE, or he |>at promp- 

tytbe (promptowre, or promptar, 

p.) Promptator. 
Prom(p)tyd. Promptusy cath. 
Promptyn*. Promot cath. tn- 

censOf insumo, 
(Promptynge, k. p. Promptus.) 
Pronge.* Erumpna, 
Proppe, longe (staffe, s.) Contusy 

Proporcyone. Proporcio. 
Proporcyonyd. Proporcionatus. 
Propyr, or prati. Elegans. 
Propurly. Eleganter, decenteVf 


Pro PUR, owne. Proprius. 
Propurte. Proprietas. 
Prow,' idem quod profyte. 
Prowde. Superbus, elatusy {pom- 

posus, p.) 
Prowdely. Superhe. 
Prowde, in cuntenaunce, and 

cbere. Pompoms. 
Prouender, benefet (provendyr, 

benyfice, k. prebend, benfyce, s. 

probender, benfice, p.) Prehenda. 
Prouender, for hors. Migma^ 

avena, (probendum, p.) 
Proverbs, Proverbium. 
Provyn, or chevy n*. Prosperor, 

(vigeo, K.) 
Provyn*, or a-sayyn*, idem quod 

prevyn, supra. 
Provynce. Provincia, 
Provokyn*, or steryn* to good, or 

badde. Provoco. 
(Ptrot, skornefulle word, or trut, 

infra. Vath.y 

explained by lexicographers as sigmfying to beg, and to steal. In the dialect of East 
Anglia at the present time to prog signifies to pry or poke into holes and corners, and 
Grose explains it as implying to hunt for provision, to forage. See Nares and Richardson. 

1 '* I prolle, I go here and there to seke a thyng, ie tracasse, Prolyng for a pro- 
mocyon, ambition.** palso. Horman says, " The nose is well sette ouer the mouthe, 
for he is a good proller (Jecator) for the bely.'' A ratche is a hound that hunts by scent, 
'* odorinsecut^ quasi odorem aequens.** See Ratche, hereafter, p. 422. 

s Compare Throwb, womannys proDge, hereafter. * * Prongg^, proprete.^* palso. 

* This word is derived from the old French prou, which signified, according to Ro- 
quefort, ffahtf profit, prqfectus. It does not appear to have been retained in the East 
Anglian dialect. Margaret Paston, writing to her son. Sir John Fasten, in 1475, com- 
plained of the distress occasioned by the exorbitant demands of Edward IV., and the 
low price of grain in consequence ; '* I can nor sell corne nor catell to no good preue, 
malt is her but at xd, a comb ; wheete, a comb, xxviijif. ; ootes, a comb, xd,** It is 
said in the Boke of Curtesye, 

'* Loke the more worthier than thou 

Wasshe afore the, and that is thy prowe {et cela est tonpreu).** 

See Robert Glouc, P. Langtoft, p. 278; Ipomedon, v. 51, and 588; Cant. Tales, 
V. 12,234, and 13,338. 

4 Baca, ptrupt, or fye! FaM, interjeccio gaudenHs^ ut habetur Isai. xliv,^ et inter » 

jectio derisionis vel increpacioniSt ^t habetur Matt, xxv^., Twort!" med. ms. cant. 

Palsgrave observes, in his enumeration of interjections, *' Some be interiections of in- 

dignacion, /rv/, as trui auant^ trut !** '' Tnit, an interjection importing indignation, 


Digitized by 




PuDDYNGE. Fartumy omasus^ 


PuL, or drajte (draw3t, s ) 

PuLLAYLY, or puUay (pullery, k. 

pullayly, or pullayle, s.)* Al- 

tilcy CATH. volatile^ c. F. 


Pullyn', or drawyn* (plvkken, 

H. p.) Traho. 
PuLLYNGE,ordrawynge Traccio, 

PuLLYNGE, or plukkyoge of fowle. 

Deplumacioy eA'pennacio. 
(PuLKE, supra in polke, p.) 
PuLPYTTE. Pufpitum. 
PuLTE, yonge hen. Gallinella, 


PuLTER, Avigerulusy CATH. gal- 

Unarms (^poletariusy k.) 
PuLTRYE. Gailinaria. 
PuMPE of a schyppe, or oj>er lyke. 

Hauritoriumj cath. 
PuNCHYN, idem quod prykkyn*, 

Punch yn', or bunchy n*. Trudo, 

tundoj impello, 

tush, tut^ fy man. Trul avant, a fig's eDd, no such matter, you are much deceived ; 
also, on afore for shame.'' goto. 

* Compare polayle, p. 407. AiHUf according to the Catholicon, denotes any do- 
mestic animal, swine or fowl, fattened for food. The word is of French derivation, 
poillaille signifying, according to Roquefort, voiaiile, pullasira. Palsgrave gives 
•• Pullayne, povllane, pouUayle.** Poultry are called pullen by Tnsser, and the word 
is retained in the Northern and Suffolk dialects. See Nares and Moor. Gerarde 
observes that in Cheshire they sow bnck wheat ** for their cattell. pullen, and such like.^* 

8 ** Librilia est baculus cum corrigia plumbata, ad tibrandum camet," ortus, from 
CATH. Forby gives the verb, as still used in Norfolk, to ** Punder, to be exactly on an 

' Pursy, eardeacust cardiacut, a pursjmes, cardia, eardiaea,** cath. ano. ** Pur- 
cyf, shorte wynded, or stuffed aboute the stomacke, pourcif," palso. ** Poussi/, 
pursie, short-winded." coto. 

* ** Purfyll or bemme of a gowne, bort.** palso. Horman says, ** The parful (seg. 
men turn) of the garment is to narowe." Tyrwhitt observes that purfiled is derived from 
the Fr. pourJUery which properly signifies to work upon the edge. Note on Cant. T. 
V. 193. See Vision of P. P. v. 896, 2313, 2523; HaU's Chron. 25 Hen. VIII. 
Although purfie properly denoted the embroidered or furred margin of the dress, it 

Punch yn', or chastysyn' (pu- 

nysshen, p.) Pnnioy castigo. 
Punchynge, or bu(n)chynge 

(prykkynge, s.) SUmulacioy 

Punchynge (punysshinge, p.) 

PuNCHoN*. Stimulus^ punctoriumy 


Punder.* Librilia, c. f. 
PuPLE (pupyll, or people, p.) 

Populusy plehsy gensy vulgus. 
Purblynde. Luscusy c. f. 
PuRCATORYE, or purgatorye. 

Purchase. Adquisicio. 
PuRCHASYD. Adquisitus. 
Purchasyn'. Adquiro. 
PuRCHASOwRE. Adquisitor, ad- 

Purcy, in wynd drawynge. Car* 

diaCUSy CATH.3 

PuRCYVAWNTE (purciwant. K.) 
PuRFYLE of a clothe (purfoyl, 

H. p.) 4 Limhusy c. f. hora- 

rium (urla, s.) 
PuRGACYON. Purgacio. 

Digitized by 




PuRYFYYN, clen8yn,or make dene. 

PuRLYN*, idem quod prollyn', 

Pur LONG YN, or prolongyn*, or put 
fer a-wey. ProlongOy alieno. 

Purpeys, fysche. Focay c. f. 
vitula marina y sutUus, c. f. 

PuR-POYNT, bed hylljmge. Pul- 
vinarium, plumea, c. f. culcitra 
punctata, kylw. comm. et 
NECC. (^plumarium, k. s. p.) 

PuRP08. Propositum, industria. 

PuRPOSYN. Propono, 

PuRPLYS, sorys.i Morhuli pur- 
pur ei dicuntur. 

PuRPUL. Purpura, cath. 

Purs, or burs. Bursa, loculus, 
crumena, c f. in cruma. 

PuRSKERUARE (pufswerkerc, s.) 

Purslane, herbe. Portulaca. 

PuRSUYN*, yn harme. Prosequor, 

PuRSUYN*, or folowyn*. Sequor, 

PuRVEYD. Provisus. 

PuRVEYYN*. Provideo, procuro. 

PuRVYANCE. Providencia, 

PuRViowRE. Provisory procu- 

Put, or leyde. Positus, coflocatus. 

Put (to-)gedyr, and onyd. 

Put to-geder, but not onyd. 

Puttyn', or leyyn*. Pono, col- 

Puttyn aftyr. Postpono. 

Puttyn a-forne. Prepono. 

Puttyn a-wey. Depono, ex- 
pelloy depello. 

Puttyn owte, or a-wey. Ej^un, 

Puttyn a-wey, or refusyii*. Be- 
pudio, rejuto. 

Putt forthe, as a manne dothe 
bys band, or otber lyke. Por- 
rigOj extendo, cath. 

Putt to a thynge. Appono. 

Puttyn a tbynge to syllyii' (sel- 
lynge, h. p.) Licitor, c. f. 

(Puttyn, or scbowwyu', infra^^ 
Impello, trudo, pello,) 

PuTTYNGE to-geder, yn onynge. 

Puttynge to-geder, wytbe-owt 
onynge. Contiguacio. 

seems sometiraes to have had a more extended sigpiification, garments overlaid with 
gems or other ornaments being termed by Chaucer and other writers, puHled. '* Pour- 
filer d*or, to pnrfle, tinsell, or overcast with gold thread, &c. Pourfileure, purfling ; a 
pnrfling lace or work ; bodkin-work ; tinsellmg.'" cotg. See Forby, v. Purle. 

' A purpylle, j^optito." cath. ano. ** Pourpre, the Parples, or a pestilent ague 
which raises on the body certain red or purple spots.' goto. 

^ To put, or pusht as with the head or horns, a verb still in use in Yorkshire, has 
been derived from Fr. bouter, to butt. Robert Brunne uses it in this sense, App. to 
Pref. cxciv. See Jamieson. ** To pntte, p«//ere.*' catb. ano. To put signifies also 
to cast, as in Havelok : see Sir Frederick Madden's Glossary, and notes, p. 193 ; Sir 
Isumbras, v. 606, where the favourite sport of pitching stones is meotioaed, of which 
Fitz Stephen speaks, as an exercise in which the citizens of London delighted. See also 
Langt. Chron. p. 26 ; Octovian, v. 895 ; and Jamieson. Marshall, in the Rural Eco- 
nomy of NorfolK, gives amongst dialectical expressions the verb to put, to stumble, as 
a horse, but it is not noticed by Forby or Moor. 

Digitized by 



PuTTYNGB, or leyynge. Posicio, 

PuTTYNGE, or schowjDge. Pulsus. 

QvAYLYN, as mylke, and other 

lycowre.*' Coagulo. 
QuAYLYNGE, of lycouie. CocLgu- 

PuTTOK, bryd. Milvus. lacio, 

QuAKYN. Tremo, contretnoy ire- 
I QuAKYNGE. Tremor, 
Quadrant. Quadrans, Quakynge, for colde. Frigutus, 

QuayerJ Quatemus. Quale, fysche (or whale, tn/ra; 

QuAYLE, byrde. Quistulat qualiay qwal, H. p.) Cetus, 

CATH. et UG. V, in Q, Quante, or sprete, rodde (or 

QuAYLYD, as mylke, and oJ)er whante, infra.)z Contus. 

lyke. Coagulatus. Quantyte. QuantUas. 

1 It may deserve notice that in old parlance, a qnire, which properly denoted a bundle 
of paper, comprising a certain number of sheets, frequently was used to signify any 
sinular bundle of sheets, or unbound volume. Chaucer, in the Envoy of his Praise of 
Women, bids his ** little quaire" go to his heart's sovereign. Thus also the Poetical 
Lament written by James I. of Scots, during his detention in England, was called 
" the King's Quair/' Horman remarks that '* boughtes, whether they be hole, or 
hoked, set to gether in order, chartcB eompHcaitSj seujusta^ seu tatce-i? uncata^) make 
a quayre. Though there be fewar or mo bought3 in a quayr yet it is com*only allied a 
quayre/' In inventories, wills, and other similar documents, any book in sheets is com- 
monly termed a quire; thus " Ion of Croiton,"of York, bequeaths, in 1393, " a quayer 
of Emunde Mirrour in ynglysch/' Test. Ebor. i. 185. Transcribers usually reckoned 
their work by quires, and numbered the qnaterni, as it proceeded. In the Paston 
Correspondence mention is made, in a letter written about 1465, of a scribe who had 
copied the Chronicle of Jerusalem, and the valiant acts of Sir John Fastolf, and esti- 
mated his labour, stating that ^* it drow more yan xxx. wha^erys off paper.*' Vol. iv. 
78. The word quire has been usually derived from the old Fr. quayer^ cahier ; or by 
some from qiiarreaUt a square. Compare Isl. kwer, libelluSf codieillug, vnico perga- 
meno conscriptus, Forby observes that a quire of paper is called in Norfolk a quaire. 
In the Issue Roll of the Exch. a.d. 1432, 9 Henry V., a payment of j^3. 6«. is recorded, 
for 66 great ** quaternes*' of calf skins, purchased by John Heth, Clerk of the Privy 
Seal, to write a Bible thereon for the King's use. "Quayre of paper, une main de 
papier.** palso. 

> To quail still signifies, in the dialect of East Anglia, to curdle, according to Forby 
and Moor. In Harl. MS. 5401, f. 192, the following direction is given, ** For qualing 
of my Ik— cast )>erto a letil flour, and sty re it wele." In a collection of recipes in Sir 
Thomas Phillipps' possession (MS. Heber, 8186) a caution occurs regarding the use of 
spices ; ** A lessone, leme hit well : to all potage put all maner of spyces to the sethynge, 
safe gynger, for he wol quayle the potage for certajme.*' See other examples of the use 
of this word in the Forme of Cury, p. 73, and the Account of the Inthronization of 
Abp. Nevill, Leland Coll. vi. 11. Ital. " QuagliarCy to curd, or congeale as milke 
doth.*' FLORio. '* I quayle, as mylke dotthe, ie quaiilebotte.** palso. 

3 Quante of sprete, redde, MS. Forby gives Quont, a pole to push a boat onwards, 
in the Vocabulary of East Anglia. See Whante, hereafter. In Kent a walking stick 
is termed a quant, and in East Sussex the word is used in the same signification as given 
by Forby. 

Digitized by 




QuAREL, or querel, or pleyntJ 

QuAREL, arowe. Quadrellum, 
Qua R ERE, or quarere of stone 

(quarer, k. quar, s. quarry e, p.) 

Lapidicmay cath. saxifra' 

giurriy KYLW. lapifodina, cath. 
Quarry, thykk maim, or womann 

(quarey, s.)' Corpulentus, 

QuARYERE. Lapidicidius, lapidi- 

cida, CATH. 
Quart, mesure. Quarta. 
QuARTEYNE, fcvyr. Qtiartono, 

guartella, kylw. 
QuARTENARE, oT )>at hathe J>e 

quarteyne. Quartenarius. 
Quarter, J>e fowrte parte. 


I QuARTERE, of come, or ojjer 

lyke. Quarterium. 
QuARTLE (quarteryd, s,) Qua- 

QuASCHYD. Quassatus. 
QvASCHYN, or brysyn (or crusch- 

yri, sup^*a.) Sriso, quasso. 
QvAscHYN, or daschyn', or for- 

don. Quasso, casso, cath. 
QuASCHYNGE. Quossacto. 
(QwAT, or what, infra. Quod,) 
QuAVE, of a myre (quaue, as of a 

myre, K. p.)3 Labina, c. f. 
QvAVYN, as myre. Tremo^ etc. 

ut supra. 
(QwEYMOWs, infra in skeymowse, 

or sweymows.^5Aomtna^/t;i<«,s.) 
QvELLYN, or querkyn (qverlyn, 

or qverkyn, s.)^ Suffoco. 

* ** A qaarelle, querelaj etc. «5t a plante.** cath. ano. In the Golden Legend a 
relation is given of a certain knight, who made annual pilgrimage to the shrine of St. 
Mary Magdalen, and having been slain accidentally, ''as his frendes wepte for hym 
lyenge on the byere they sayd with swete and deuoute querelles, which suffred her 
denoute semant to deye without confessyon and penaunce." 

^ Robert of Gloucester says that Robert Curtbose was so named on account of his 
stature, " vor he was somdel schort.** 

" >ycl(e man he was ynou, bote he nas no^t wel long : 

Quarry he was, and wel ymade Torto be strong.'' P. 413. 

Horman speaks of " a quarry and well pyght man, homo staturA corporit quadratd.'* 
" Quarry, fatte bodyed, or great, corpulent,** palso. ** A quarry or fat man, obenaJ** 
oouLDM. In the Dialect of East Anglia quaddy has the like signification, according to 
Forby. In Rich. Cceur de Lion the epithet is applied to a lance — ** a long schafft 
stout and quarrey.'* v. 493. In the Seuyn Sages a large hall is described as '*quaire." 

' Horman, in his chapter £?« re e//(/?ca/on<J, observes that ''a quauery or a maris, 
and unstable foundacion must be holpe with great pylys of alder rammed downe, and 
with a frame of tymbre called a crossaundre (JUtuc^i),** In Caxton's Mirrour of the 
World, part ii. c. 32, it is said, " understande ye — how the erthe quaueth and shaketh, 
that somme peple calle an erthe quaue, by cause they fele ther the meue and quave vnder 
their feet.*' •• Quaue myre, /ottn<£riere, crouliere.** palso. Forby gives Quavery- 
mavery, undecided, hesitating how to decide. 

4 To quell, as used by the old writers, signifies to destroy life in any manner, although 
here apparently taRen in the sense of stifling. Minot, speaking of the Corny n, says 
that " in haly kirk thai did him qwell.*' Chaucer, describing a farm yard attacked by 
a fox, says, '* the dokes crieden as men wold hem quelle.*' Cant. T. v. 15,396. Ang.- 
Sax. cwellan, iruddare. 

Digitized by 




(QwELMEN, supra in ovyr qwel- 

mjrn, et infra in tumon.) 
(QwEMYD, or peesyd, supra. Pa- 

QvEMYN, or plesyn (pesjm, 

K. s. p.)^ PoAiifico^ placo, 

(QwEMYNGE, or peesynge, supra. 

QuENCB, frute. Coctonunh 9ci- 

ionium, c. f. (niconia, p.) 


QvENTYSE, or sleythe (qveyntesvr 
qveyntyze, sleyhte, h. quentysur' 
quentyze, sleight, p.) Astucia, 
caUidita^y (cautela, p.) 

QuEYNTYSE, yn gay florysschynge, 
or oJ)er lyke. VtriUay kylw. 
et uo. V. Jrancista, kylw. 

QvENE. Regina, 

QuEN, womann of lytylle price.' 
Carisia, kylw. et c. f. 

(QwENCHYD, as candylle, or 

lyghte, idem quod owt, supra. 

Quenchyn. Extinguo. 
QuERDLYNGE, appulle. Dura- 

cenum, kylw, 
QuEERE. Chorus. 
Qverel, pleynte. Querela. 
QuERYSTER. Chorista, chorica- 

nus, CATH. choricista, pari- 

phonista, comm. 

QUERKENYD.8 SuffocatUS. 

Querkekynge. Suffocacio. 
QuERKYN, idem yw^a quellyii. 
QuERNE. Mola manualisy c. f. 

trapeta, c. f. comm. 
(QwERT, or whert, infraA In- 

columisf sanusy sospes.) 
QuESTE. Duodena. 
QuESTYONE. Questio. 
QuEYM, or be-qvethyn (quethyn, 

K. p. queyin, or be-quevyn, s.) 

QuEYEwoRDE (qvethc worde, k. 

' To queme, Ang.-Sax. cwemao, placere^ is commonly used by Langtoft, Chaucer, 
Gower, Spenser, and other writers. Chaucer uses also the verb to misqueme, to dis- 
please. In the Wicliffite version quemeful occurs in the sense of pleasing. In the 
curate's instructions to his flock, according to the directions given in the Flos Florum, 
Bumey MS. 356, f. 82, the following passage occurs, in reference to the third petition 
of the Lord's Prayer. '' Here whe byddeh >at as angeles and holy saules quemeth God 
in heuene, ]>at whe so mowhe wyth hys grace queme hym in er)>e.*' Palsgrave gives the 
verb, '^ I queme, I please or I satysfye, Chauser, in his Canterbury Tales ; this worde is 
nowe out of vse.'* Jamieson gives it as retained in some parts of N. Britain. 

3 '* Quenne, garse^ paillarde, gaultiere" palso. Chaucer uses the word in this 
opprobrious sense. In the Vision of Piers Ploughman it is said that in the church it is 
hard to distinguish a knight from a knave, or *' a queyne fro a queene.'' See Paston 
Letters, iv. 360. 

3 " NoyeTy to drowne, to whirken, to stifle with water. Noiiy whirkened, ouer- 
whelmed, as with water, ^^t^^o^u^, stifled, whirkened, smothered." cotg. *' Querk- 
ned, svffocattu.'^ gouldm. Querken'd is still used in this sense, in the Craven Dialect. 

4 See Seuyn Sages, v. 771, 3862 ; Lydgate*s Minor Poems, pp. 32, 38. " QuartyfuUe, 
compos^ prosper. To make quarfulle, prosperare. A quarfuUnesse, prosperitaa. 
* ' In qwarte, ubi hale. Hale, acer^ firmus, incolumuiy integer , aanus, sospes. * * c ath . an g . 

** The Wiseman forsothe wil nat sette his herte 

On thinge that may not longe stande in querte." Speculum Xpiant. 

Digitized by 




qveye word, or qvethe word, h. 
quetheword, s.)* LegcUum. 
QuYBYBE, spyce. Quiparum, 


QvYCCHYN, or mevyn (quichyn, 

K. qvyhchyn, H. qvytchyn, s. 

quynchyn, w.)2 Moveo, 
(QwYCE TRE, or fyrrys, ruprch or 

gorstys tre. Huscus.) 
QuYK, or a-lyve (or whyk, infra,) 

QuYK, or lyvely, or delyvyr. 

QuYKLY. Vivacite7\ 
QuYKNBSSE, or lyvylynessc. Fi- 

QuYKNESSE, of lyve (lyf, k.) Vita. 
QuYKNYN (quykyn, K. p.) Ve» 

geto, vtvifico. 
QvYLLE, stalke. Calamus. 
QvYLTE, of a bedde. Culcitra. 
QuYNTYNE. QwirmaWttm, c. f. 

et UG. in quiparium. 
QvYRLYLEBONE, yn a iojmt.' 

QuYSPERON (or mustryn, supra; 

qvysperyn, or qwysperyn, h. 

whysperyn, p.) Mussito. 
(QwYSPERYNGE, or musteryoge, 

supra. Mussitacio.) 
QuYT, and delyuerd of a charge. 

Solutus, liheratuSi deohligatus. 
Q VYT AUNCE. Acquietancia^apoca. 
QvYTYN*, or 3yldyn*. Reddo^per' 

solvoy quieto. 

QuYVER, for to putt yn boltys, 

Rabet, yonge conye (conyne, 

K H. Rabett, cony, p.) Cuni- 

Rabet, yryne tool of carpentrye. 

Runcina^ cath. 
Rabet, in a werke of carpentrye. 

Runctura, incastratura, c. f. 
(Rabetynge to-gedyr of ij. 

bordys, supra in knyttynge, or 

Rag A RE, of a pytte (rakare of a 

cyte, K. 8. p.) Merdifer, cath. 

fiimariusy c. f. oliior, c. f. 

(^rmariusy s.JimaritM, p.) 
Racyn (or rasyn, h. p.) bokys, or 

oj>er lyke. Rado, ahrado. 
Raaf, propyr name. Radulphus. 
Raaf, ware (raf ward, s.) 
Raaf, man. 
Ragge. Cincinnus, ug. in cedoy 

scrutuniy panniculus, lacinia, 


Ragoyd (or tome, p.) Lacini- 
0SUS9 lacinosus, c. f. pannosus, 
lace^'atus, cincinnosus. 

Ragyn*. RabiOf colluctor. 

Ragynge. Rabies, rahb'itus, c. f. 

Ragmann, or he that gojrthe 
wythe iaggyd clothys (raggyd 
clothys, s.) Pannicius, velpan- 
nicia, ug. in pan. 

1 ** Legaium, a quetbworde, et est quod in testalo dimiititur, mbd. '* I queythe, 
ie donne en testament, or ie delaiste,*' palso. 

' See King Alis, v. 4747. " I quytche, 1 styrrc or moue with my bodye, or make 
noyse, ie iinle. His mother maketh hym a cokenay {ung nyee), bat and he here me he 
dare nat quytche. She layde upon hym lyke a manlte sacke, and the poore boye dnrste 
net ones quytche {tynier).^' p\ls6. The same author giyea the verb ** I quyncbe, I 
styrre, ie mouvue. I qujmche, I make a noyse, ie tynte.^* ** // n^y a homme qui ose 
lever tceil devant luy, no man dare quitch or stirre before him.'' coto. 

' See Wbyblebonb, or hole of a ioynt, hereafter. 

Digitized by 




Ratche, hownde.* OdorinsecuSy 
quasi odoremsequensy rep{er)a' 
ritu, KYLW. et cath. forte in 
reperio, venaticus, comm. 

Raiare (ragere, k.) Rahiator^ 
rabuluSf c. f. et UG. rahiosus. 

Ray, yn a clothe (rayid, k. rayyd 
with ray, s. rayed, p.) StragU' 
latusy radiatuSf Dice. 

(Ray, cloj>, s. p. Stragulum.) 

(Ray, fysh, s. Uranoscopus.) 

Kayd, or arayed wythe clothynge, 
or other thynge of honeste (thynge 
of clennesse, k. p.) Omatus. 

Rayd, or (a)rayde, or redy (rayed, 
or arayid, k. p.) Paratus. 

Rayl, of vyneys (rayyl of vynyll, 
H. p.) Paxillusy CATH. retica, 
c. F. et uo. in resis. 

Rayle vynys. Retico, c. f. 

Rayl YD, as wynys. Reticatus. 

Raylynoe. Reticacio. 

Rayment, or arayment (orna- 
ment, K.) Omatusy omamentum. 

Rakke. Presepe. 

Rake, or rjve. Rostrum, cath. 

et c. F. et UG. in rarus, rcu- 

tallum, CATH. 
Rakyn (or ryvyn, infra.) Rastroy 


Rakyngb. Rastraturoy c. f. 
Ram, schepe. Verves. 
Ramme, ynstrument to ram wythe. 

Pilus, CATH. piletuniy trudesy 

c. F. (pilentum, p.) 
Ram age, or coragyows.^ Corra- 

giosusy luitosusy ug. in luo. 
(Ramage, or corage, h. p. Co- 


LuitOy UG. in luo. 
Ram MY N*, wythe an instrument.^ 

Trudoy teroy pilo, 
Rammynge, of a grownde. Tri- 

turoy pressuray \compressioy p.) 
Ramzys, herhe (rammys, k. s. 

ramsis, h. ramseys, p.y Aff^^' 

dyllusy c. F. 

* Compare Prolltn, as ratchys, above, p. 415. In Dame Julyan Bernes* instrac 
tions, in the Boke of Huntynge, it is said that the hart, buck, and boar are beasts of 
chase, which *' wyth the lymere shall be vpreryd in fryth or in felde,*' but that all other 
beasts that are hunted <' shall be sought and founde wyth ratches so fre." Compare 
the Mayster of Game, Vesp. B. xii. f. 89. A dog that discovered his prey by scent was 
termed a ratche, as distinguished from a greyhound. Aug.- Sax. Riece, rendered in 
^Ifric's Glossary " iniccM*,** q. braccus^ or brticeOt indagator. Gesner gives a 
representation of the " Canit Seoticus aagaXf tntlgo dictus ane Rache," observing that 
Caius says of dogs which hunt by scent, that the male is generally called a hound, the 
female, by the English a Brack, by the Scotch ** ane Racbe." See Jamieson, v. Rache, 
and Brachell ; Ducange, v, Bracco. In the Catholicon Angl. is given *' Gabrielle rache, 
hie camalion,*' 

s In Sloane MS. 2584, f. 173, it is said of *' )>e medicyns and vertues of the asche— 
)>er ben bestis )>at hau venym, as )>e heynde, \>e hounde, and )>e wolf, and o)>er bestis, 
|>at whenne )>ei am ramagous or joli, here venym gretly noyeb, so )>at oftyn si>es )>ei 
makyn men sike, and somme to dyen.'' The seed of the tree of life is recommended as a 
remedy, namely the ** bellis** that grow on the ash, mixed with woman's milk. Chaucer 
uses ramage, and ramagious in a similar sense. See Hardyng's Chron. c. xcvii. st. 6. 

» Ramnyn. MS. 

4 Gerarde states that the /Allium ursinum is called ** Ramsies, Ramsons, or Buckrams. 

Digitized by 




Randb, or Randolf, propyr name 

(Radyl, s.) RanulphuSy non 

JRadulphis, Raaf. 
Randone, or longe renge of 

wurdys, or other thyngys (long 

raunge, etc.y Haringga, epis' 

tola quedam denominata, 
(Ranke, 8. p. Crassus.) 
(Rankenesse, s. p. CroMsi' 

Rankowre, hertely wrethe (wreth 

in hert, s.) Rancor, 
Ransakyd. Investigatus, per- 

scrutaiuSi vel scrutatus. 
Ransakyn'. Scrutor^ lustro, in- 

vestigo, persci'uior. 
Ransakyn\ or demyn' yn wytte 

(demyn with in wytt, harl. ms. 

2274) Discucio. 

Ransak YNGE. Investigacio, scru- 

tinittm, indaga^doy perscrutacio. 
Rappe, stroke. Ictus, percuciot 

Rape, or hast.^ Festinacioy fes- 

Rape, herbe. Raphanusy c. f. 

rapay ug. in rumpo. 
Rapyn', or hasty d'. Festino, ac- 

Rappyn', or knokkyn at a dore. 

Rappyn*, or smytyn' a thynge 

a-jen' a-no{)er. Collido, allido. 
(Rappyn, or smytyn, h. p. Per- 

Rascalyb> or symple puple (ras- 

cayle, s. sympyl peple, k.)' 

Popellus {plebsy s.) 

The broad-leaved garlick is commonly termed ramsons ; in Craven Dialect rams, or 
ramps. " Ramsey, an herbe*' (no French.) palso. 

1 HaringgaaeemA here to be given for harenga, or arenga, a public declamation. See 
Dncaoge. Randon, in its primary signification, appears to be synonymous with the old 
Fr. randon^ violence, impetnous speed, a sudden shock. Thus Sir John Maundevile 
relates that, on solemn festivals, at the Court of the Chan, '* thei maken knyghtes to 
jousten in armes fulle lustyly, and thei rennen to gidre a gret randoum, and thei 
frusschen to gidere fully fiercely.*' p. 286. Holinshed describes the onslaught upon 
the Duke of Somerset at the battle of Tewkesbury, '* with full randon,*' as made by 
certain spear-men placed by Edward IV. in ambush. " Aller h la grand randon^ to 
go very fast. Randonner, to run violently." goto. Elyot gives '* Decursio, iustes as 
at the tilte or raudon." In a secondary sense this word seems to have implied an 
array or line of combatants, or a continuous fiow of words, as in an harangue. 

2 Chaucer uses this word both as a substantive and an adverb. In the Vision of 
P. Ploughman the verb to rape, to hasten, occurs, as also the adverbs rapely and 

5 *^Plebecula, lytelle folke or raskalle. PlebSt folk or raskallc.*' med. Fabyan, 
under the year 1456, speaks of ** a multitude of rascall and poore people of the cytye." 
Certain animals, not accounted as beasts of cbace, were likewise so termed. In the St. 
Alban's Book it is stated that ** there be fine beasts which we cal beasts of chace, the 
buke, the doe, the foxe, the marteme, and the roe ; all other of what kinde soeuer terme 
them Rascall.** It appears, however, from the Mayster of Game, that the hart, until he 
was six years old, was accounted ** rascayle or foly." Vesp. B. xii., f. 25. In the 
Survey of the Estates of Glastonbury Abbey, taken at the Dissolution, the deer in the 
varioos parks are distinguished as ** deere of anntler"and '* deere of Rascall.*' Heame's 
P. Langt. ii. 345. Herman says, '* He hath bought rascals and other shepe, reiuculM 
emit et promueuat oves. — This is but rochel and rascall wine, tortiuum vinum.*' In the 
Household Ordinances of Henry VIII. A.D. 1526, some kind of fish is thus termed, 

Digitized by 




R A SCALY, or refuse, where of hyt 

be (qwere so hyt be, s.) Ca- 

ducum, c. F. 
Rasyn', or scrapyn', idem quod 

racyn', supra,^ 
Rasyn, as hondys.' Ringo, cath. 
Rasynge, of hondys (howndys, 

K. houndes, p.) JRicttis, cath. 
Rasynge, of scrapyDge of bokys 

or other lyke. Abrasion rasura. 
Raskyn'. JEjealo, ug v. in m. 

et UG. in alo. 
Rasowre, fysche. RasoiHus (ra- 

sorinust p.) 
Rasoure, knyfe (rasour of schav- 

ynge, k. p.) Novacula^ ra- 

sorium, c. f. 
Rastylbow, wede.' Restahovis, 
Rastyr howse, or schavyng 

howse (rasyr hows, s.)^ Bar- 

R A TONE re. SoricuSi soricepSf 


R ATUN, or raton'. RcUo,sorex, c.f. 
Ravare. Delirusy cath. deli^ 

rator, c. f. 
Raw. CrudtAS, 
Raweyne, hey (rawen, p.)* . Fe- 

num serotinum^ cath. 
Raveyne. Rapina, spoliutn. 
Raven B, byrd. Comix. 
Ravenowre. Raptor y predo^ 

rabidusy cath. (rabulus, p.) 
Ra vyn*, or dotjm'. J)esipio,CATH . 

insanioy deliro, 
Ravynge. Deliracio^ c. f. deli- 

ramentumy cath. 
Ravyschyn'. Rapio, 
RAWNESSE,orrawhede. Crudita^, 
Rawnsome. Redempcto. 
Rawnsomyd. Redemptus, 
Rawnsomyn*. Multo {redimo<, p,) 
Rath ARE (or sonnare, infra.) 

Pocius, cicitts. 
Real. Realis, 
Realte. Realitas. 

possibly an inferior flat fish ; one mess of *' rascalU or flage," at the price of eight pence, 
was to be provided on fish days. " Rascall, refuse beest, refu$/* palso. 

* Forby gives the verb to rase, pronounced race, to cut or scratch superficially, as 
used in East Anglia. ^* I race a writynge, I take out a worde with a pomyce or pen- 
knyfe — 1> efface des mot^y &c. — I race a thynge that is made or graven out, as the 
weather or tyme dothe, — ie obbiiiiere. Rase, a scrapjmg, rasure,** palso. In Tre- 
visa's version of Vegecius, B. ii. c. 13, it is said that besides banners the Roman 
chieftains had '^crestes oner thawrt her helmes and diners signes and tokyns, that in 
caas her baner of her warde w* eny myshappe were voidede, rasede, or filede, or done 
out of her sighte, yet by the sightes of her souereyns crestes they might retume ayen to 
her wardes." Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. Robert Fill, in the ♦* Briefe sum of the Christian 
faith,'* translated from Beza, says, ** My iniquities can no more fraye nor trouble me, 
my acconntes and dettes beinge assuredly rased and wiped out by the precious blood of 
Jesus Christ." f. 19, b. 

*-* *' Ringo, ircuci stent cants, velrictum facer e, to gner." obtus. 

* Gerarde says that ihe petty whinne, or rest harrow, is commonly called Aresta 
bovia, and remora aratri, in French areste best*/. In Norfolk, according to Forby, it is 
called land-whin. 

* ** A raster house, barbitondiumf tontorium. A raster dathe, ralia,^* cath. ang. 
" Ralla, a raster clothe." ortus. 

^ Tusser caUs the eddish, or after-grass " rawingSy** and it is still so termed in the 
Dialect of Elast Anglia, according to Forby ; in Hampshire and Sussex it is called 
rowings or rough! ngs. 

Digitized by 




Rebel, or vnbuxum. Rebellis, 

Rebellyn*. ReheUo. 
Rebel LYONS, or TDbuxmnnesse. 

Rehellioy inobediencia. 
Rebowndyn', or sowndyn a-5ene.* 

Rehooy CATH. rotundo (re- 

dundoy s. p.) 
Rebo(w)ndynge, or 8o(w)nd- 

y(n)ge a-jen (reboudinge, p.) 

Rehoacioj reboatus, 
Rebukyn*, or rebostoD (rebostyn, 

or VDdymemyn, k.) Redarguo. 
Receyvyd. Receptusy acceptus. 
Receyvyn'. Recipioy stucipio, 

(accipio, p.) capio. 
(Receyuyng, p. Accepcioy re^ 

(Receyuour, p. Receptor, ac' 

Receyt. Receptum, 
Rechyn', as lethyr (retchyn' as 

leder, p.) DilatOy extendo. 
Rechyn, or a-retchyn, and ny3e 

to a thynge (astrechyn, k. 

stretchyn, p.) Attingo, pro- 

tendoy VG. v. in m. 

Rechyn', or put fortbe, as a 
maon dothe bys bonde (retcbyn, 
or drawyn owt, K. h* p.) E(x)' 
tendo, etc, ut supra, 

Rbchynge, or stretcb3nige (rehcb- 
inge, K. rehogbynge, p.)* Ex' 

Recleyme, or cbalange. Cla- 
meumy vendicacio (clamium^ p.) 

Recleymyd, as hawkys. Redo* 

mitUSf CATH. 

Recleymyd, or cbalangyd. Re- 

Recleymyn*, or wytbefeyn* (witb 

stynt, 8. witbseyne, p.) Re- 

Recleymyn', or make tame. 

Dotno (domesticOf p.) redamo. 
Recleymynge, of wyldenesse. 

(Reclgse, or ankyr, supra. Ana- 

Record, of wytnesse (record or 

witnesse, p.) Testimonium, tes- 

tijicacio, recordacio. 
Recorder, lytyl pype.^ Canula, 

c. F. in coraula. 

1 *' I reboaode, as tbe sownde of a home, or the sounde of a bell, or ones voyce 
dothe, ie boundys, ie reaonne, &c. Aga3m8t a holowe place voyce or noyse wyll re- 
boande and make an eccho.*' palso. Compare sound ynge a-^enb, resonatus^ infra, 

> This word is placed in the MS. and in p. between refuge and rehersyngb, probably 
because by the first hand it had been written rbhchynge, as in the King's Coll. MS. 
Palsgrave gives various significations of the verb to readh. '' I ratche, I stretche out a 
length, ie estends. If it be to shorte ratche it out. I ratche, I catche, I have raught 
(Lydgat) ie attayns. And I ratche y* thou shalt here me a blowe, si ie iepeulx attayndre 
ie ie donneray ung soufflet. I reche, ie bailie. I reche a tbyng with my hande or with 
a weapen, or any other thyng that I holde in my hand, ie atiayns.^* See Moor's Suflfolk 
Glossary, v. Reech. 

» The musical instrument called a recorder appears to be the kind of flute of which a 
description and representation are given by Mersennus, designated as the **fluste 
d*Angleterre, que Von appelle douce , et h netifirous.*' Harmonic Univ. 1, p. 237. He 
eihibits the form and construction of a set of flutes which had been sent from England 
to one of the Kings of France, and these representations may serve to illustrate the 
observation of Bacon, that '* the figure of recorders, and flutes, and pipes, are straight; 
but the recorder hath a less bore and a greater, above and below." Nat. Hist. s. 331. 


Digitized by 




Record YN lessonys. RecordoVy 

repeto (recordo, p.) 
Recordyn*, or bere wytaesse. 

Recordowre, wjrtnesse berer. 

Recreacyon*, or refreschynge 

(refeccion*, p.) Recreatio^ re- 

Recreacyon*, or howse of re- 

fre8chynge.3 Recreatorium, 
Recur YN, or a-3en getyn*. Re- 

Recuryn', of sekenesse. Cofi' 

valeo, reconvaleo. 
Rede, coloure. Rubens , rubi' 

REEDyofthefenne. Arundoycanna, 
Reed pytte, or fenne.' Can- 

netuniy arundineturriy c. f. 
Reed, counsele. Consilium, 
Reede, on a booke (redyn bokys, 

K. p.) Lego. 

Red ARE, of bokys. Lector, 
Red A RE, or expownder of thyngys 

bard to vndyrstonde (redar or 

cow(n)celar in priuities, k. redar 

of counsellis and preuyteis, p.) 

Interpretator, edictor. 
Red A RE, of bowsys. Calamator, 

arundinariusy cannarius. 
Redbreste, b3rrde. RuheUus, 

viridariusy frigella. 
Redgownd, sekenesse of yonge 

cbyldryne.^ Scrophulusy c. f. 

scrophulcy UG. in scortes. 
Redy. Promptusy paratus, 
R ED Y L Y. Promptey para te, 
Redynesse. Promptitudoy 
Redyn* bowsys. Arundinoy ca- 

lamoy KYLW. (culmisoy p.) 
Redyn', or expownyn' redellys, 

or paraboV, and otber privyteys, 

idem quod ondon*, supra in O. 

(parablys and odyr prevy termys, 

infra in vndoyn, s.)*^ 

In Holland's version of Pliny the single pipe or recorder is mentioned. •* Recorder, a 
pjpCfflevle ft ix. trous.** palso. Further information respecting the varioos flutes used 
during the middle ages is given by M. de Toulmon, in his Dissertation on Musical In- 
struments. Mem. des Antiqu. de France, xvii. p. 131. See Nares. The early note of 
song-birds was termed recording, probably, as Barrington suggests, from the instrument 
formerly called a recorder. ** I recorde, as yonge byrdes do. le paielle. This byrde 
recordeth all redy, she wyll synge wHn a whyle.*' palsg. *' To record, as birds, 
reffazouilier.** sherw. 

* RecordaciOj ms. fecreatio^ k. p. 

3 Refreschynge, ms. Compare Refreschtd, &c. ir^ra. 

s This word occurs in the MS. between Rednessb and Rbfeccyone. 

* Gownd signifies the foul matter of a sore, Ang.-Sax. %\indf pusy sanies, as already 
noticed under the word gowndb of )>e eye, p. 206. ** Reed gounde, sickenesse of 
chyldren.*' palso. This eruptive humour is more commonly termed the Redgum, for 
which various remedies are to be found in old books of medicine. William Langham 
specially commends the water of columbine as *' good for yong children to drinke 
against the redgum or fellon." Garden of Health, 1579. '* Red-gum, a sickness of 
young children, scrophulvs.'^ gouldm. 

6 '* I rede, I gesse, ie diuine. Rede who tolde it me, and I wyll tell the trouthe. I 
rede or advise, ie conseille. Loke what you do I rede you.** palso. Horman says, 
'* Arede my dreme and I wyl say thou art Godis fellow." Ang.-Sax. arsedan, cot^ectare. 
" Enigma, est sermo figuratns vel obseura loeuiiOy vel questio obscura, que non intelli- 
gitur nisi aperiatur, Angiice a redynge or demaunde." ortus. 

Digitized by 






Rbdynge, of bokys. 
Redynge, colowre. 

Redynge, of howsyfl. 

Redynge, or expownynge of ry- 

dellys, or ojier privyteys (vndo- 

ynge of redellysand pryuynessys, 

K.) Interpretacio, edicio, 
Rednessb. Rubedo. 
Redressyn. Dirigo, redirigo. 
Refeccyon', (refet of fisshe, k. 

refet or fishe, h. reuet, v,y 

Refectio, refectura. 
Refecyd, or refeet (refeted, k. h. 

reacted, p.)» RefectuSy cath. 
Reformyn*. Reformo. 
Refreynyn*. Refireno, cath. 

cohibeOi compesco. 
Refreyt, of a respowne (refreyth, 

s. respounde, k. refreyt or a ro- 

spown', p.) AnHstrophay cath. 
Refreschyd. Refocillatusy re- 

creatus (refectus, P.) 

Refreschyn'. Re/icio, refbcillo. 
Refuce, or owt caste, what so euer 

hyt be (refute, p.) Caducttmy 

Refucyd. Refutatus, 
Refusyn*, and forsakyii. ReJvtOy 

respuoy cath. abdico. 
Refusyn, wythe hate. Repudioy 

c. f. 
Refusynge. Refutacioyrecusacio, 
Refuge, or socowre (refute, k. p. 

refuce, s.)' Refugiunh *tw?- 

Reiaggyn* (or reprevyn*, infra.y 

Rehercyn*. Recito. 
Rehercyn* a thynge a-5en, or do 

the {sic) a thynge a-3en (re- 

hercen* ageyne, or done agejme, 

p.) Iteroy recito. 
Rehersynge. Redtacio, 
Reyhhe, fysche. Ragadia, kylw. 
Reyke, or royt, ydylle walky(n)ge 

abowt (reyke or royke, s.)^ 

1 This term may designate some kind of entremets, a reward or extra service of fish 
at a banquet : possibly it may denote the fast-day refection. Roquefort, however, gives 
— " R^ait : sorte de poisson de mer, ronget, parce qu'il est gros et gras" (refais). 

' '* R^do, to agayne stable, or to refete." mbd. ms. cant. Compare the use of 
the word '* refetiden,'* {refieiebant, Vnlg.) in the Wycliffite version, Deeds, c. xxviiL 2. 

3 The reading supplied by the King's Coll. MS.— Refdte, is in accordance with the 
obsolete form of the word, as found in the Wycliffite version (Dent. xix. 12. Jer. xvi. 
19 : plor. refnytis, Ps. ciii. 18.) So also in the version of Vegicius ascribed to Trevisa, 
mention is made of a *' refute to rynne to.'* (Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. B. i. c. 21.) In old 
French, R^y, 

4 This verb, occurring in alphabetical order between Refusyn and Rehercyii, may 
have been written by the first hand — Regaggyn. It is used by an ancient writer on the 
virtues of herbs (Arund. MS. 42, f. 10 b.) Speaking of the cure of sore gums or 
** water cancre," as easy with prompt attention, he says — *' I saw a wor)>y leche so 
angry & wroth with moderes & kepirs of children >t hadde longe a-byden, >t he reiagged 
hem hugely, and onne>is and (with) gret dyficulte durste he, or wolde, vnderfonge hem 
to cure." Skelton speaks of " beggars reiagged," (Why come ye nat to courte? v. 602,) 
which Mr. Dyce explains as signifying all-tattered. 

5 Forby gives the verb to Rake as still used in Norfolk, precisely in this sense. It 
means *' to gad or ramble in mere idleness, without any immoral implication. It is 
often applied to truant children." Brockett has a similar word, — " Riake, v. to walk, 
to range or rove about. Su.-Gk>t. reka, to roam." 

Digitized by 




DiscursiUy vagacio, vagitcuy 

CATH. in vagor, 
Reyne. Pluvia, 
Reynebow. Iris. 
Reyn' fowls, bryd (or Wode- 

wale, or Wodehake, infra.) 

Gaulus, c. p. picus, c. f. me- 

ropes, c F. (pictis major, p.)' 
Reynyn', as kyngys. Regno. 
Reynyn* water. Pluit, cath. 
Reyne water, or water of rejme. 

NibatOy CATH. 
Reysyn* vp. LevOy sublevo, sus- 

citOy erigo. 
Reysyn' vp fro slepe (or wakyn, 

infra.) JSscito, evigilo {ex- 

perg^cioy p.) 
Reysynge vp. Elevacioy e^^eccioy 

{exaitacio, p.) 
Reysynge, or rerynge vp fro 

slepe. JSxpergeJaccio, cath. 
Reysone, or reysynge, frute. Uva 

passch carica, ug. v. rase- 

Reek, or golf (reyke, k. golfe or 

stak, p.) Arconius, acervus. 

Reek, or smeke. Fumus. 
Rekkeles. Necgligensy incurius. 
Rekkelesly. NecgUgenier. 
Rekkelesnesse (reklesbed, k.) 

Necgligencioy incuria. 
Rekken, or cha(r)gyn, or 5en tale 

(chargyn or jenetale, k. reckyn' 

or chargen', or gyue tale, p.) 

Reknare. Computator. 
Reknyn* or cowntyn' (rekkyn, s. 

reken*, p.) ComptUoy cath. 
Reknynge. Computacioy com- 

potusy rcudo. 
(Rekenynge, or a counte, k. a 

cowntes, h. accompte, p. Com* 

Reel, womannys ynstniment. 

Alabrum, c. f. 
Releef.^ Religuie. 
Releef, or brocaly of mete (or 

blevynge, supra.) Frogmen- 

turn, fragmeny misteUimumy 


Relece, or for-5euene8se (for- 
gyuenesse, p.) ReUixacio. 

1 This name of the woodpecker is not given by the GloBuurists of East Anglia as still 
used in that part of England ; but in the North, as Brockett states^ that bird is known 
by the popular appellation of the Rain-fowl, or Rain-bird, and its loud cry offcen re- 
peated is supposed to prognosticate rain. The Romans called the woodpecker pluvim 
avi», for the same cause. Gesner gives amongst the names of the Picus in various 
countries, — ** Anglis, a specht, vel a Wodpecker, vel raynbyrde.*' 

* In the Wyc1i£Bte version, Jos. x. 28, it is said of the utter destruction of Maceda, 
— ** he lefte not l>erinne nameli litle relyues,'* — non dhmtit in ea nin parvus religuias. 
Vulg. Roquefort explains HelisfwA signifying broken meat, the scraps of the kitchen ; 
it is thus used in the Wycliffite version, as in Rath, c. iL— *'Sche brou^t for)> and ^af to 
her )>e relifis of hir mete ;'* — and Matt. xiv. — **Thei token the reliiis of broken gobetis 
twelve cofyns fuL'* In the version of Barth. de Propriet. Rerum, attributed to Trevisa, 
it is said of a banquet, — ^*^ At the laste comyth frute and spyces, and whan they haue ete, 
bord clothes and relyf ben borne awaye." In Caxton's Boke for Travellers, — ** The 
leuynge of the table, U relirfde la table.** See also Maundevile's Travels, p. 250, ed. 
1723. The term seems also applied to the basket in which the fragments were carried 
away; as in a list of kitchen furniture, in Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 35, b.— " Relef, 

Digitized by 




Reles, tast or odowreJ Odor. 
Relecyn'. Relaso. 
Relenttn'. JResolvOf liquoy es, 

2 €onj\ CATH. liquOf cu^ prime 

conj. secundum cath. 
Relevyn'. Belevo, 
Religyone. Religio. 
Relygyows. Religioeue. 
Rely KB. Reliquia. 
Relyn', wythe a reele. Alabrieo. 
Reem, kyngdam. Regnum. 
(Reeme, paper, p.) 
Reem, or rewme of the bed, or of 

the breste. Reuma, 
Remedy. Remedium. 
Remelawnt (remenaimt, rest- 

duufOy F.y Reeiduut, reUquus. 
Remyn*, as ale or other lycoure 

(or cremy n ', supra ).• Spumat, 

Remiss YON*, or for3eveDes8e. 

Rem OWN, or remevyn (remowne, 

K. s. remouyn', or remeuyn*, p.) 

AmoveOf removeo. 
Ren, or rennynge. Cur sue. 

Rennare. Cursor, 

Rennare, or vnstable a-bydare. 
Fugitwus, JugiHvch projugus, 
projuga, currcLXy c. f. et uo. 

Renderyn'. Reddo* 

Renderynge. Reddicio. 

Reendyn'. Lctceroy lanio, cath. 

Rendynge a-sundyr. Laceracio, 

Renlys, or rendlys, for mylke 
(rennelesse, k. renels, p.) Co- 
agulunh CATH. et c. F. lactisy 

CATH. et UG. 

Reene, of a brydylle. Hahena^ 
Ura {sic, lora, p.) 

Reenge, or rowe. Series. 

Rennyn , or lepyn*. Curro, cath. 

RennyiT, as water, and other 
lycure. MancU, curanat (sic, 
emanat, P.) 

Rennyn* be-fome. Precurro. 

Rennynge, of bestys. Cursus. 

Rennynge, of water, or oJ>er ly- 
cure. Manacio. 

Rennynge, of lycoure not stond- 
ynge, as dyschmetys, or other 
lyke. LiquiduSyfluvidus. 

1 This word has occurred previously, — Odowre or relece, p. 362. It occurs in Lyd- 
gate's Destr. of Thebes, in the narration of the burning of the bodies of the Greeks de- 
Uyered by Theseus to their wives, for faneral rites, 

'' But what shuld I eny lenger dwelle 
The old ryytys by and by to telle — 
How the bodyes wer to ashes brent ; 
Nor of the gommes in the flaumbe spent. 

To make the hayre swetter of relees." Arund. MS. 119, f. 76 v®. 
8 The use of the obsolete form of the word remnant appears in the Craven Glossary, 
V, Remlin, and in Palmer's Devonshire Words, v. Remlet. It occurs in the inventory of 
effects of a merchant at Newcastle, in 1571, in whose shop were certain " yeardes of 
worssett in Remlauntes.*' Durham Wills and Inv. Surtees Soc. voL i. 362. So also in 
the Boke of Curtasye, amongst rules for behaviour at table ; 
** Byt not on thy brede, and lay hyt doun, 
That is no curteyse to vse in towne ; 
But breke as myche as >" wylle ete. 

The remelant to pore j)*" schalle lete.'' Sloane M& 1986, f. 18 b. 
3 Compare Craven Dialect, v. Reamed. Ang.-Saz. Ream, Rem, cream. ** Reme, 
qtmccum.^* cath. ano. 

Digitized by 




Rennynoe, game. Bravium, 


Rent, as ck>thys. Laceratus, 
Rent, and raggyd (iaggyd, s.) 

Lacerosusy cath. 
Rent, 5erly dette. EeddUuSy ne- 

frendicium^ cath. 
Rente gaderere. Censualis^ 

c. F. 
Renuwyn*.* JRenovo. 
Reparacyon, or reparaylynge, or 

a-mendynge of olde thynggys. 

Reparacioy sartum, c. f. 
Rep A RE, heirystmanne. Mes' 

sovy messellusy c. f. metellus, vo . 
Reparyn' (or makyn a3ene, k. 

make ageyn, p.) Reparo^refieio, 
Repe corne. Meto, 
Repentyn. Penitet, 
Repynge, of corne. Messura, 

Repone, of a balle or oj)er lyke. 

Hepulsa, repulus, 
Reportyn', or here a-wey thynge 

}>at hathe be seyde or taw3te. 

Repreef (repreve, k. s.) Oppro- 
brium, improperium (yitupe- 

riunh p.) 
Reprefable. ReprehensihiUsy 

increpabilU, culpahilis. 
Reprevyn*. Reprehendoy depre- 

Reprevyn, or reiaggyn'. Redar- 

Requiryn*. Requiro. 
Rere, or nesche, as eggys (as 

eyre, h. eyyre, s.)' MolUt, (sor- 

hilisf p.) 
Rere, or motewoke, supra in M. 

(mothewoke, s. Dimollis.) 
Rere sopere> Ohsonium^ c. f. 
(Reryn', or revyn of slepe, infra 

in wakyn*. Exdto.) 
Resynyn*. Resigno. 
Respyte, or ley sure, of tyme (res- 

pight, or leyser, or tyme, p.) 


1 Setuualis, ms. and p. " Cenmalis. «. officialis qui sensum (ne) exiffit provineialem.^* 


« The reading of the MS. may possibly be rennwyn*. 

3 Bishop Kennett, in his Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, gives ** Reer, raw, 
as, the meat is reer ; a reer roasted egg. Kent. I had rather have meat a little reer than 
overdone.'' Ang.-Sax. hrere, crudut. Forby and Major Moor notice the word as 
retained in East Anglia. It is not uncommonly used by old writers. Thus Andrew 
Boorde, in bis Breviary of Health, of things that comfort the heart, says ''maces and 
ginger, rere egges, and pocbed egges not hard, theyr yolkes be a cordiall," and he re- 
commends for SaiyrioM to eat two or three ''new layd egges rosted rere," with pow- 
dered nettle seed. Langham, in his Garden of Health, frequently commends their use. 
" Reere, as an egge is, mol.** palso. See also Nares. 

4 Obaonium is defined in the Ortus Vocabulorum to be *^ parws cibut et delieatut 
qui post cenam contra somnum tumitur.^^ The curious notice of the habits of his tiroes, 
given by Harrison, in which he ascribes the introduction of reare suppers to "bardie 
Canutus,** is well known, and has been cited already in the note on beubr, vol. i. p. 34. 
Herman observes, in bis Vutgaria, — " Rere suppers {comesatio) slee many men. He 
kepeth rere suppers tyll mydnyght. In this vitaylers shoppe there is sctte to sale all 
coDceyttis and pleasnris for rere suppers and iunkettis and bankettis." Palsgrave has — 
" Rere supper, baneqnei, Rere banket, Ralias," and Cotgrave renders " regoubiUonner^ 
To make a reare supper, steale an after supper ; bancquet late anights.*' See Nares, v. 
Rere-banquet, and HalliwelPs Dictionary. 

Digitized by 




Respowne (respounde, k. respon, 

p.) ResponsoHum. 
Re^t, as flesche (resty, p.) Ran- 

(Rbstnesse, of flesshe, k. resty- 

nesse, p. Rancor.) 
Restare, or a-restare. Arestator. 
Rest, after trauayle. Quies, re- 

Restyn', after trauayle. Quiescoy 

Reestyn', as flesche. Ranceoy 


Restoryn*, or ftilfyllyn a-5ene. 

Restaur o. 
Restoryn, or 3yldyu a-jene. 

Restreynyn*. Restringo. 
Resun, or resone. Racio. 
Res UN ABLE. Racionabilis. 
Rettyn' tymbyr, hempe, or ofer 

lyke (retjm tymbyr, flax or 

hempe, k. p.)^ Rigo, infundo. 
Rectyn', or rettyn', or wytyn' 

(rettyn, or a-rectjm, or weytyn, 

s. rettyn, k. p.) Imputo, re- 

puto, ascribo. 

Returnyn*, or tumyn a-3ene. 

Reverter, redio. 
Rewarde. Retribucio, tnerces. 
Rewards, at mete, vhan fode 

fallythe of the seruyce (qvane 

fode faylyth at |>e seruyse, s. 

rewarde of mete whan fode 

faylethe at the boorde, p.)^ Auc- 

toriuniy cath. et UG. in augeo, 
Rewarde, yn )>e ende of mete, of 

frutys. Impomentumy UG. in 

Rewarde, for syngarys, and myn- 

8t(r)ally8. Siparium, UG. in sipe. 
Rewardyn*. Rependoy cath. re- 

munero, reddo (recompenso^ p.) 
Reve, lordys serwawnte. Pre- 

Reuerce. Contrariurn, oppo- 

Revylyn*. Aporio, c. f. 
Revyn*, or spoylyn'. Spolio, 

Revyn, or be vyolence take awey, 

or hyntyn*. Rapio. 

* In Norfolk, to Ret still signifies to soak or macerate in water ; and a pond for 
soaking hemp is called a Retting- pit. See Forby's account of the modes of retting. He 
conjectures that the derivation of the term may be from Ang.-Sax. rith, rivM. Sea 
weeds were formerly called Reets. Bishop Kennett has the following note, — ** Reits, 
sea weed, of some called reits, of others wrack, and of the Thanet men wore," &c. 
** Leppe, sea-grasse, sea-weed, reets." goto. The term to Ret may be derived from the 
Flemish,—** het vlas Reeten, to hickle, bruise, or breake flax : een Reete, a hitchell 
with teeth to bruise flax.** Hexham's Netherdutch Dictionary. " Reten, Rouir du lin 
oti du chanvre,** Olinger. 
3 In the curious poem '* de Offidariis in curiis dominorum," it is said, — 
'* Whenne brede faylys at horde aboute, 
The marshalle gares sett w*oaten doute 

More brede, >at calde is a rewarde." Sloane MS. 1386, f. 31. 
" Rewarde of meate, entremetz.** palso. See the account of Rewards in the Rule of 
the Household of the Princess Cecill, mother of Edw. IV. (Household Ordinances, *38.) 
and the Service to the Archbishop of York, in 1464, (Leland, Coll. vol. vi. p. 7.) The 
dessert was thus called, it appears, in ancient festivities. ** Impomentum eat ejctremum 
fereulum gttodponitur in meruat ut pomOf nuces et pira,** ortus. 


Digitized by 




Revyn' of reest (or wakyn, infra). 

Revynge, or spoylynge. Spo- 

Revynge of reste. Inquietacio, 
Revynge, or dystruynge of pees. 

Turbacio, perturbacio. 
Rewle, ynstrument. Regula, 
Rewle, or gouernawnce. Guber^ 

nacio, regimen, 
Rewle, of techynge. JRegula, 

Rewlyn, wythe instrument. JRe- 

Rewlyn', or gouernyn*. Guberno^ 

(REWMEof the hed or of the breste, 

tupra in reem. JReuma,) 

Revokyn*, or wythe clepyn 
(rewkyn, p.) Revoco, 

Ryal, of foom or berme (ryal, or 
fom of berme, k. ryall fome or 
barme, p.)^ Spuma, cath. 

(Ryalte, supra in realte, p.) 

Ryband, of a clothe (ribawnde or 
Hour, K. lyoure, p.) Limbus^ 
CATH. et ug. redimiculum^ 
CATH. (nimbuSf cath. p.) 

Rybawde (rybawder'j p.) Ri- 
baldus, ribalda. 

Rybawderyfe (ribawdrye, k. p.) 

Rybbb (bone, p.) Costa. 

Rybbe, ynstrument* Rupa^ Dice. 

Rybbb skynne (rybskyn, h. p.)* 

' ** Riall of wyne,/ome, hrouie^fleurJ''' j» Compare the Norfolk provincialiiin, 
to Rile, to stir up liquor and make it turbid, by moving the sediment. The figurative 
application of the word, so often heard in America, appears from Forby to be purely 
East Anglian. See Bartlett's Americanisms, v. To Roil, and Rily, turbid. 

8 " A ryb for lyne. To ryb lyne. coatare, ex(eos(are)ynebridare.** cath. ano. Pals- 
grave has — *' Ribbe for ilaxe.'* The cleaning or dressing of flax was termed ribbing, ai 
in the version of Glanvile de Propriet. Rerum, attributed to Trevisa, lib. xvii. c. 97. 
Flax, it is stated, after being steeped and dried, is **bonnde in praty nytches and 
boundels, and afterward knocked, beaten and brayed, and carfled, rodded and gnodded, 
ribbed and hekled, and at the last aponne.'* Rippling flax, the North Country term, is 
possibly synonymous with ribbing. See Ray, N. Country Words, and Brockett, who 
adds,—** Stt.-Got, repa lin, linum vellere, Teut. repen. alringere semen iini," Bishop 
Kennett also notices it thus, — ** To ripple flax, to wipe off the seed vessels. Bor. Rather 
to repple flax with a repple or stick, a. s. repel, baculue, Rippo, or repple, a long 
walking-staff' carried by countrymen. Cheshire." In an Inventory (taken at North- 
allerton ?) in 1499, are mentioned, — *' a hekyll, j. d. a ryppyll came, iij. d. — a payr of 
wool cames, v. d." Wills and Invent. Surtees Soc. vol. i. p. 104. See Rypelvnob of 
flax, infra, 

s This part of the appliances of a spinner is doubtless what is now called in Norfolk 
*' a Tripskin, — a piece ot leather, worn on the right-hand side of the petticoat by spinners 
with the rock, on which the spindle plays and the yarn is pressed by the hand of the 
spinner.'' forbt. " A rybbynge skyne,iie*riAi, p^/Zicwfta." cath. ano. " Pellicudia, 
a rubbynge skynne." ortus. ** Rybbe skynne" (no French word.) palso. See the 
carious list of articles pledged for ale to Elinour Rummyng : 
'* And some went so narrowe. 

They layde to pledge their wharrowe, 
Their rybskyn and theyr spyndell." 

Skelton'i Works, ed. Dyce, vol. i. p. 104, and ii. p. 168. 

Digitized by 




Rybbyn' flax, hempe, or oJ>er lyke. 

Rybybe. Vitula, cath. in vUuIus, 
Rybbeworte, herbe. Lanciola. 
Ryce, frute. JRisia, vel risi, n, 

indecl. secundum quosdam, vel 
' rinuniy c. f. vel risorum gra^ 

ntim, c. F. et comm. (rizi vel 

granum Indicum^ p.) 
Rycharde, propyr name. Ri' 

Ryche. Dives, locuples, c. f. et 

CATH. opulentus. 
Rychesse. (ryches, p.) Divide, 

opulencia, opis, opes. 
R YC H es t. Ditissimus. 
Rychellys (richelle, K.y Thus, 

incensumy c. f. 
R YD A RE, horsman. Equester, 

(eques, equitator, p.) 
Rydel, curtyne. Cortina. 
Rydel, or probleme. Enigma, 

probfema, paradigma, c. F. 

(^probleuma, p.) 
RYDYL,of corn clensynge (ridil for 

wynwjm of come, k. for weno- 

wynge, p.) Cribrum, cath. 

capisterium, c. F. ventilabrum, 

c. F. et CATH. currijrugium, 

KYLW. (velabrum, p.k.s.) 

Rydelyn*. Cribro, capisterio. 
Rydyn'. Equito. 
RydyngB. Equitattis, 
Rydowre, grete hardenesse (ri- 

dowre or rigour, k.h.p.)^ Rigor. 
Rye, corn. Siligo, c. f. et cath. 
Ryyf, or opynly knowe (knowen, 

p.) Manifestus, puplicatus. 
Ryfelyn', or robbyn*. Spolio, 

per do. 
Ryflowre (ryflar or rifelor, p.) 

Depredator, spoliator. 
Ryfte, in a walle, or boord, or 

o))er lyke (ryft or crany, p.) 

Rima, ug. et c. f. riscus, 


Ryfte, or ryvynge of clo]>e, or 

cuttjmge. Scissura. 
Rygge, of a lond. Porca, cath. 

et ug. {agger, p.) 
Rygge bone of bakke (rigbone or 

bakbone, p.) Spina, spondile, 

c. F. 
Ryggyn' howsys. Porco, cath. 
RYGGYNGEofhowsys. Porcacio. 
Ryght, in forme of makynge, or 

growynge (rytb, with owtyn 

wrongnesse^ K.) Rectus. 
R yghte, of truthe (ryth or trwthe, 

K.) Justus, equus. 

1 Compare Cense, or incense, or rycbelle, supra, vol. i. p. 66 ; and Sohtppe, yei- 
lelle to put yn rychel, infra, ** Rekels, incensum, olibanum,** cath. ano. Incense was 
called in Anglo-Saxon Stor, (storium, the aromatic gum,) and Ricels, Recels. So also 
Ricels-ffet, thuribuium, and Ricels-bace, acerra, a pyx or box for incense. 

' Tyrwhitt, in his Glossary to Chaucer, gives the word ** Reddour/* explained as 
strength, violence. It is the old French " Redour, reddur, — Roideur, fermete, duret^." 
ROQUBF. In a carious poem on sacred subjects, xr. cent. Add. MS. 10,053, it occurs 
thus (p. 159)— 

" Also thenke with hert stedefast, 
Whan thou wote that Goddis mercy is, 
Hou mekele shal be yf thou can taste 
The reddur of his rightwesnesse,'' &c. 

And it is said in the context that the wicked at the day of doom " shol be dampned 
thorgh reddour of rightwesnesse,** &c. 

Digitized by 




Ryohte foorthk. Recte,directe, 
Ryghtfulle, idem quod ryghte, 

Ryghtfulle, yn belevynge, and 

levynge (in leuenesse and leu- 

ynge, p.) Ortodoxus^ c. F. 
Ryghtfulnesse, or ryghtwys- 

nesse. Justiciar eguitas, recti- 

Ryghte pARTEofabeest.D^^^er. 
Ry(g)hteyn*, or make ryghte 

(ryhtyn, K. rythjrn or maken 

ryth, p.) Rectifico. 
Rylle, thynne clothe.^ Ralloy 

ug. v. in B. 
Rym, of a wbele. Timpanum, 

CATH. circumferenciay cath. 
Ryme. JRithmictUf vel rithmus, 

(rithma, ug. h.) 
Rym are. Geirt*o, ug. v. et c. f. 
Rymyn*. Rithmico. 
Ryme, frost. Pruina, 
Rympyl, or rymple (or wrynkyl, 

tn/ro.) Ruga, rugadioy kylw. 
Rymplyd. Rugatus. 
Rym THE, or space, or rowme 

(rymthy, p,)^ Spacium. 

Rymthe, or leysure, of tyme. 

Oportunitas, vel spacium tern- 

Rymthyn, or make rymthe and 

space. Elocoy ug. perloco, 

evacuoy (vacuo, p.) 
Ryyncyn'.' Rigo, vincto, as, 

lavaculo, (humecto, lavatilo, p.S 
Ryyncynge (rynsinge of yessell, 

K. p.) Rigacio, 
Rynge. Anulus. 
Rynge wyrme. Serpigo, ser- 

pego, c. F. et cath. (serpedo, p.) 
Ryngyn' belly 8. Pulso. 
Rype. Maturus, 
Rypenesse. Maturitas. 
Rypelynge, of flax, or o)>er lyke.^ 

Rypyn', or wax rype. Maturio, 


Rypyn*, or make rype. Maturo, 

CATH. et c. F. 
Rypyn', or begynne to rype. Ma- 

Rysare. Surrector, 
Rysare, or rebellowre a-3en pees. 

Rebellator, insurrector. 

* This word occurs in the us, between Ryggynge and Ryght Hereafter will be 
found (under letter T) — ^Thinne clothe that is clepyd a Rylle. In the Ortus, Raiia is 
explained to be ** a Raster clothe," which appears to have been nsed in shaving. See 
Rasttr H0W8E, suprOf p. 424. Rylle is perhaps only another form of the won) Rail, 
Ang.-Saz. rsegl, hrsegel, vestimentum. See Nares v, Raile. ** Rayle for a womans 
ntcke, crevechirf en guartire doubles.** palso. Sherwood gives — '* a woman's raile, 
Piffnon,** and Cotgrave renders ** un collet d. peignoir ^ — a large raile which women 
put about their neckes when they comb themselves.'* 

> In the Book of Christian Prayers, Lond. 1590, f. 38 v<>. it is said, — ** Gine vnto the 
•hepheardes, whome thou hast vouchsafed to put in thy roomth, the gift of prophesie." 
In a letter regarding the building of Abp. Whitgift*s Hospital at Croydon, 1596, the 
writer states of certain trenches made in preparing foundation walls, — ** We are now 
fillinge the voyde rometh therin.'^ Ducarel's Croydon, p. 155. See also Drayton, 
Polyolb. s. 6. 

• Rytntyn'. M8. The King*s Coll. MS. has Ryncjrn, and other readings are, — 
Ryynsyng, and Ryyncyn. Vincto may be an error for humecto. Palsgrave gives the 
verb to rynce a cup or clothes, ** Haineer,** 

4 Amulsio, MS. See the note on Rybde, supra. Rippling flax is a term still in 
common use in North Britain. See Jamieson. 

Digitized by 




Rysche, or rusche. Cirpusyjun- 

Rysyn' vp fro sege. Surgo, 

Rysyn' erly. Manico, cath. 

Ryse fro dede, or dethe. Resurgo. 

Rysyn' a-3en pees. Insurgo^ con- 

Rysyn' ajen a person' to don hym 
worschyppe (risyn a3ens a lord 
to don vorchepe, k. reuerance, 
s. rysyn age3rnst a lorde for 
worshyp, p.) Assurgo. 

Rysynge vp fro sete, or restynge 
place. Surrexioy resun^ecHo, 

Rysynge a-3en pees. Insurresio, 

Rysynge a-jene persone, for wor- 
schyppe (risinge up to worchype, 
K. p.) Assurrexio. 

Ryve, or rake. Rastrum, cath. 

Ryvere, water. Rivusy (Wtw- 
lu8y p.) 

Ryvyn', or rakyii'. Rastro. 

Ryvyn*, or reendyn*. Lacero, 

Ryvyn', or clyvyn, as men doo 
woodde. Findo, 

Ryvyn' to londe, as schyppys or 
botys, fro water. Applico^ ap- 
pellor c. F. 

Ryvynge vp to lond, fro water. 
Applicacioy applicatus. 

Roo, beest. Capreus, capreolus, 


Roobe, garment. Mutatorium, 
RoBERD, propyr name. Ro' 

RoBBYN (or revyn, k. s. p.) 

Fur or y latrocinor, predor^ 

(spolio, p.) 
RoBBOWRE, on the londe. Spolia' 

toTy predoy vUpilio, kylw. 
RoBBOWRE, on the see. PiratOy 

CATH. vispilio, kylw. 
RoBows, or coldyr.2 Peh'osoy 

petroy CATH. 
Roche, fysche. Rochay rochiay 


Roche, ston. Rupuy rupes, cath. 

scopulusy CATH. saxum. 
Rochet, clothe. Supara. 
Rode, of londe. Roda, 
Roode, crosse or rode lofte. Cruxy 

Roode, of shyppys stondyng'.^ 

RoDDE. Contusy {perticay p.) 
Roof, of an howse. TectufOy domay 

C. F. KYLW. 

Roof tree, (or ruff tree, infra.) 

Festuniy c. f. 
RoGGYN, or mevyn' (or schoggyn, 

infra; rokkyn, k.) Agito, 
RoGGYN, or waveryn' (or schakyn, 

infra,) Vacillo. 
Roggynge, or (s)chakynge. Va- 


* Junciiu, ci, MS. junc€U8, p. 

^ Compare Coolder, supra, toI. I. p. 86. In the Wardrobe Account of Piers 
Conrteys, Keeper of the Wardrobe 20 Edw. IV. 1480, occurs a payment to ** John 
Carter, for cariage away of a grete loode of robeuz, that was left in the strete after the 
reparacyone made nppon a hous apperteignyng unto the same Warderobe.'' Harl. MS. 
4780. In later times the word is written *' mbbrysshe." Thos Horman says, in his 
Vnlgaria, — ** Batt^ and great rubbrysshe semeth to fyl up in the myddell of the wall ;** 
and Palsgrave gives ** Robrisshe of stones, plasinu,/oumiture,** Forby gives Rnbbage 
as the term nsed in East Anglia. 

> The terminal contraction may here have the power of ys, — stondyngys, the Roads, 
places where vessels stand or lie at anchor. The printed editions give — " Rode of 
shyppes stondynge.'' 

Digitized by 




Roytyn', or gdn ydyl a-bowte 

(roytyn, or roylyn, or gone ydyl 

abowte, p.) Vagor, cath. dis- 

curro. ^ 
Rook, bryd. Frugelkif c. f. 

KYLW. graculus. 
Rook, of the chesse. Rocus. 
RoKE, myste. Nebula, cath. 

(mephis, p.) 
RoKKE, yn ye see, idem quod 

roche, supra. 
RoKKE, of spynnynge. Colus, c. f. 

UG. rocca, vg. 
RoKET, of the rokke (roket of 

spynnynge, p.) Librum, c. F. 

pensum. Dice. cath. et c. f. 
RoKY, or my sty. Nebulosus. 
RoKKE chylder, yn a cradyle. 

CunagitOy motito {vel movillo, 

s. agitare cunas, p.) 
RoLLE. Rotula, matricula, 

ROLLYN*. Volvo, CATH. 

RoLLYNOE, or tumynge a*bowte. 

RoMAWNCE idem quod Ryme,* 

supra; et Rithmichum,JRoma' 

gium, KYLW. 
C. F. 

Rome, cyte. Roma. 
RoMELYNGE, or privy mysterynge 

(preuy mustringe, p.) Rumi- 

nacio, mussitacio, cath. 
RoNNON,s as mylke (ronnyn as 

mylke or other lycoure, k. p.) 

(RoNNYN, as dojoun, or masere, 

or oJ>er lyke, h. p.)'* 
Roop. Funis, restis, cor da. 
RoPAR. Scenefactor, cath. et 

UG. in scenos. 
RoPYNGE,aleor o))erlycowre(ropy 

as ale, k. h. of ale, s.) Viscosus.^ 
RoRE, or truble amonge ]>e puple.* 

Tumultus, commotio, disturbium* 

1 Thii may be derived from roiareg as also irregular soldiery were termed, in Low 
Latin, rutarii or rotarii. Palsgrave gives the verb '* I rowte — I assemble together in 
roates, or I styre aboute, je me arroute, I lyke nat this geare, that y* commens begynneth 
to route on this facyon." See Jamieson, v. Royt. 

* Rome, MS. 

s The power of tbe terminal contraction is questionable, and may be er — as in ner. 

4 RoNNTN appears to signify congealed or run together* — Ang.-Saz. Gerunnen, 
coagulatust as milk is coagulated hy rennet, called in Gloucestershire running. See also 
Jamieson, o. To Rin, to become curdled, &c. As here used in reference to the knotted 
wood, of which masers were made, the term ronntn seems to describe the ciMigulated 
appearance of the mottled grain, not dissimilar to ropy curds. See the note on Masrrb, 
supra t p. 328. In the note on Doron, p. 125, it has been suggested that the reading 
of the MS. may be corrupt, and that the word should be Dogon. In the Winchester 
MS. is found — ^ Doion\ Dogena,'* This various reading had not been noticed, when 
the above mentioned note was printed. Dojoun, or dudgeon, appears to denote some 
kind of wood, used in like manner as the motley-grained material called Maser, but its 
precise nature has not been ascertained. 


* Hall, relating the wiles practised by the Duke of Gloucester, says he persuaded 
the Queen that it was inexpedient to surround the young King Edward with a strong 
force, when he was brought to London for his coronation, for fear of reviving old 
variance of parties, ** and thus should all the realme fal in a roare." Herman says — 
** all the world was full of fere and in a roare {solUeitudinU complebaiur).** ** Rore, 
trouble, trouble,*^ palso. 

Digitized by 




RooRYN, as beestys. Rugioy 

CATH. irrugio. 
RooRYN*, or chaungyn on chaffare 

fro a nother (roryn, or chaungyn 

chaffare, k.) Cambio, cath. 
RooRYN*, or niffelyn* amonge 

dyaerse thyngys (rooryn or 

purlyn, amonge sundry thynges, 

H. p.) Manumitto. 
RoRYNGE, crye of beestys. Ru- 

gitust mtigitus, 
RoRYNGE, or changynge of chaffer 

for a noJ>er. Cambium, per^ 

mutaciOf commutacio. 
Rose, flovre. Rosa. 
Rose, propyr name. Rota. 
Rose mary, herbe (Rosemaryue, 

&.) Rosmarinus, rosa marina, 
Roseere (rosijere, k.) Rosetum. 
RosYNE, gumme. Resina. 
RosPEYS, wyne. Vinum rosatum, 
RosPYNGB, or bolkynge (balkynge, 

s.) Eructizcio. 
Roost A RE, or hastelere. Assator* 
RoosTYD. Assatus. 
RosTYD METE. Ascibarium. 
RosT YRYN*, or gradyryn*, Cra- 

ticula, crates, cath. 
RosTYD, sum what brennyd (rost- 

1yd, somwhat brent,p.) Ustillaius. 
RoosTYNGE. Assaturcu 
RoosTYN. Asso, (cremo, p.) 
RoosTONE (rostelyn, K. rostljrn, 

H. p.) Vstulo, USlillo, CATH. 

RosTLYNGE. Ustyllacio. 

RoT, or rotynge (rott, or comip- 

cion, K. p.) Corrupcio, pu- 


1 Bmdromii and Emdroma, us, the reading in the CathoUcon is as above given : 
the term signified a shaggy garment, used in the arena, dp6fup. Compare Faldtmob, 
stgifra, p. 147. 

« Sarabarta, ics. The Winchester ms. gives Sarabarra, uo. v. in Rua. '• Sarabuia, 
vittats vesUs.** 0RTU8. See Dacange. 

Root, of yse and custome (rot, or 

vse in custom, p.) Habitus, 

consuetudo, assuetudo. 
Rote, of a thynge gprowynge. 

RoTYN, or take rote, as treys and 

herbys. Radico. 
RooTON, or tume to comipcyon. 

Corrumpo, putreo, 
RoTYN*, as eyre. Flactesco, 
Rotynge, or takyinge rote yn 

waxynge (rotynge in the gprounde, 

K. J.) Radicacio. 
Rotynge, to corrupcyon chang- 

ynge. Corrupcio, 
(RoTON, p. Corruplus,putridus,) 
RowGHE, as here or o))er lyke (row, 

K. H. s.) Hispidus, hirsutus. 
RowGHE, or vngoodely in chere 

(row, or vngodyly, k.) Torvus. 
RowGHE, scharp or knotty (row, 

sharp, and knottyd, h.) S(c)a' 

ber, c, f. 
RowARE, yn a water. Remex, 

CATH. (remigex, s.) 
Rob A RE, or robbar yn the see 

(rovare, or thef of the se, k. 

rowar as thyf on the see, p.) 

Pirata, ug. cath. 
RowcHERE. Acrimonia^ ug. in 

Row clothe, as faldynge, and 

o)>er lyke. Endromis vel en^ 

droma,^ cath. birrus, amphi" 

balus. sarabarra,* uo. v. 
RowDYONYS, blaste, or qwyrlwynd 

(rowdyows, s. whirlewind, k. 

rowdyons, p.) Turbo. 

Digitized by 




RowB, or reenge. Series, linea. 
Rowel, of a spore. Stimulus, 


RowHE, or reyhe, fysche (rowe- 

fysshe, K,rowghe,p.) Ragadies. 
(RowHYN*, or cowghyn, supra in 

hostyn*. Rewyn, s.) 
Rowyn', yn watyr. Navigo. 
RowYN*, wythe orys. Rendgo, 
Row to lond, or lede a boote or a 

shyppe to londe (ledyn a boote 

or schyppyn, s.) Subduco, in- 

RowYNGE. Remigacio. 
RowYNOB SETE yn a schyppe. 

TranstTTumy cath, c. f. 
RowM, space (or rymthe, supra,) 

RowNDE, as balle. Rotundus. 
RowNDE, as a spere or a staffe (a 

shaft, 8.) Teres. 
RowNDE, for fetnesse. Obesus, 

up. in edo, 
RowNDE GOBET, of what SO hyt 

be. Globus, UG. 
RowNDEL. Rotundale. 
RowNDENEssE, of a balle or o]>er 

lyke. Rotunditas. 
RowNDENEssB, of a spere or a 

staffe. Teritudo. 

of a fysche. Liqua» 
to-gederJ Susurro, 




RowYNYNGE (sic) to-gedyr. 

surrium, cath. 
RowTARE, yn slepe. Stertor^ 

RowTYN, yn slepe (rowtyn or 

snoryn, p.) Sterto, cath. 
RowTYNGE, yn slepe. Ster- 

RoDYR, of a schyppe (rothir, k. 

royther, h. royer, s.) Am- 

plustre, c. P. temo, cath. plec- 

trumy clavus, 
(RoTHYR, or maschel, supra, or 

maschscherel. Remulus, pal- 

mula, mixtorium,) 
RuBBYN*, or chafyn*. Frico, 
RuBBYNGE. Confricacio, 
Ruddy, sum what reede. Rufus, 

fulvus, CATH, flaVUS, C. F. 

RuDDOK, reed breest (roddok, 
birde, p.) Viridarius, rubellus, 

RuDDoN*, idem quod rubbyii*, 

RuwE, herbe (rwe, k. p.) Ruia, 

Ruffe, fysche. Sparrus, 

' ** To rowne, susurrare, A rownere, suturro.** cath. ano. In Pynson'a " Boke 
to leme French/' is the admonition, — '* and loke thou rowne nat in non eris — et garde 
toy d>$couter en nulUz oraU/et,** Palsgrare gives the verbs to «* rounde in coonsaylle," 
dire en secret t and to '* rounde one in the eare/* suroreilier. In a sermon at Panics 
Cross by R. Wimbledon, given by Fox, it is said, — ** It is good that euerye ruler of 
cominalties that they be not lad by follyes ne by none other eare rowner.'* Acts and 
Mon. Afuw 1389. Ang.-Sax. Runian, mussitare, 

** Yiff that yonre lorde also yee se drynkynge, 
Looke that ye be in rihte stable sylence, 
Withe oute lowde lauhtre or jangelynge, 
Rovnynge, japynge or other insolence.'' 

Treatise of Curtesy, Harl. MS. 5086, fol. 87, t<». 
2 Mr. Halliwell gives to " Rud, to mb, to polish, Dew>n*^ overlooked by the West 
Country Glossarists. 

Digitized by 




Ruffe candelJ Hirsepa^funale, 

CATH. c. F. et UG. infos, 
RuFFLYD, or snarlyd. Innodatus, 

RuFFELYN, or snarlyn (swarlyn, 

s.y Innodo (illaqueo^ s.) 
Ruffelyn', or debatyn' (or dis- 

cordyn, k. p.) Discordo, 
RuFFLYNGE, OF snarlyDge. Illa^ 

gueaciOf innodacio. 
RuFFLYNGE, OF debate. Dis- 

cencio, discordia. 
(Ruffe of an hows, supra in 

rofe, p.) 
Ruff tree of an bowse (rafters, 

Harl. MS. 2274.) Festum^CATU. 
RuFUL, or ful of rathe and pyte. 

PieticxiSy CATH. compassivus. 
RuFULLE, and fulle of peyne and 

desese, Anglice, a caytyf (or 

pytyous, supra.) Dolorosus, 

penosus, caiamitosus, c. f. 
RoGGYD, or rowghe (raggyd or 

rowe, K. s.) Hispidus, hirsutus. 
Ruwyn', or for-thynkyn'. Pe- 

niteOi vel penitet, impersonale. 
RuwYN*, or bane pyte (rwyu, or 

to ban pyty, k.) Compatior, 
RuYNGE, for a thynge (rvyn, or 

forthynkynge, k. s. p. Pent- 

tudo, penitencia, 
RuKKUN, or cow re down' (curyn 

doun, K. crowdyn downe, s. 

ruckyn, or cowry n downe, p.)^ 

RuKKYNGE (rakklyng, Harl. MS. 

2274.) Incurvacio. 
RuLY, idem quod raful, supra. 

(rvly or pytowus, k. raly or py- 

teowslyor pytows, p.)* 
(RuMMAUNCE, supra in rjrme, p.) 
RuMMUELoN, (sic) OT prively 

mystron.' Mus^to, 
(RuMMELYN, K. H. ramlyn, p. 

(RuMLYNGE. JRuminacio, p.) 
RuMNEYE, wyne. 
RussHE, tW^m quod ryschey supra 

iruscheii, supra in ryschyn, 
larl. MS. 2274.) 

RuMPE, tayle. Cauda. 

Run, or bryyn', ^upra in B. (brine 
of salt, idem quod brine, s.) 

Russet. Gresius, (sic) elbus^ 
CATH. russetus, kylw. elbidus. 

Rust. JRubigo. 

Rusty. Rubiginosus, 

RusToN*. Rubigino. 

RuTHE. Compassio. 

RuTHE, pyte, idem quod pyte, 

RuTTON*, o(r) throwyn' (rwtyn or 
castyn, k. rowtyn or throwyn, 
idem quod castyn, s. hittyn* or 
throwyn' or castyn, p^ Pro- 
jicioy idem quod castyn*, supra 
in C. {jactoy p.) 

^ A Raffie or Roughie, according to Jaroieson, tignifies in Eskdale a torch used in 
fishing wiih the lister by night ; probably, as he supposes, from the rough material of 
which it is formed. A wick clogged with tallow is termed a Ruffy. Roaghie in N. 
Britain signifies also brushwood or heather. Funalia were torches formed of ropes 
twisted together and dipped in pitch. 

* " I ruflSe clothe or sylke, I bring them out of their playne foldynge; je plionne, 
jefroitse. See how this lawne is shruffyllcd.*' {sic.) palso. 

s This word occurs amongst the verbs, in the Harl. MS. without any Latin equivalent. 

4 This is placed amongst the verbs, after Rubbyn, (as if written Ruckun). The 
word is used by .Chaucer, (Nonnes Pr. Tale) speaking of the fox — ** false morderour 
nicking in thy den." So also in Conf. Am. 72. Forby gives ** to ruck, to squat or 
shrink down.'* 

' This word occurs in the Paston Letters, vol. iii. p. 44. " Ye chaunge was a rewly 
chaunge, for ye towne was undo >erby, and in ye werse by an c. li.'' 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



F^ ike Smiter^a^ «/18d$^. 

1. RcstonjdoB of Kins: EAw^id IV. 
S. Kjn^ JoiuB, br Bbbop Bote. 
3L Deponskn of Ricbanl IL 

4. FlnmptoD Comspoodence. 

5. AmeedtMes aiul TndhkMis. 

/=or 1839. 

6. Political Soogs. 

7. Hajwanfs Aimab of Elinbeth. 

8. Ecdesasdcal Docmneiits. 

9. Xordeii*s Descriptioii of Essex. 

10. Warkworth's Chronkle. 

1 1. Kenp's Nine Daies Wonder. 

For 1840. 

12. The EgertoD Papers. 

13. Gutmka Jocelini de Brakelonda. 

14. Irish Namtiyes, 1641 and 1690. 

15. Rishaoger's Chrimicle. 

For 1841. 

16. Poems of Walter Mapes. 

17. Travels of Nicander Nucius. 

18. Three Metrical Romances. 

19. Diary of Dr. John Dee. 

For 1842. 

20. Apology for the Lollards. 

21. Rutland Papers. 

22. Diary of Bishop Cartwright. 

28. Letters of Eminent Literary Men. 

24. Proceedings against Dame Alice 


For 1843. 

25. Promptorium Parvulorum : Tom. I. 

26. Suppression of the Monasteries. 

27. Leycester Correspondence. 

For 1844. 

28. French Chronicle of London: 
2^. Polydore Vergil. 

30. The Thornton Romances. 

31. Vemey's Notes of Long Parliament 

3:i^ AttU*iv«T«phT of Sir J. Bra«ifc$lv«. 

34. liber de Aulhiub l*(es:tb«*. 
3o, The ChroukW 04" C»Uw. 

/i>r K<4l3k 

36. P^lvdore VergiV* Hi^Kwrr* Vv^. K 

37. ItaUan Relation of Ew^\*ud* 

38. Churth of MidiUebam, 

39. The Camden MbwUimy, Vol* L 

Fov 1847, 

40. Life of Lord Gm of Wilton, 

41. Diary of Walter Vowgts E*^, 

42. Diary of Henry Machyn* 

For 1848, 

43. Visitation of Huntingdon»hir<», 

44. Obituary of Kichard Smyth, 

45. Twysden on the Ciovernment of Eug* 


For 1849, 

46. Letters of Eliiabeth and James VI. 

47. Chronicon Petroburgenio. 

48. Queen Jane and Queen Mary, 

For 1850. 

49. Bury Wills and Inventories. 

50. Mapes de Nugis Curiallum, 

51. Pilgrimage of Sir H. (luylford, 

For 1851. 

52. Secret Services of Charlet II. nnd 

James II. 
63. Chronicle of the drey Frittm of 
I 54. Promptorium Parvulorum, Tom. II. 
(Lettera M to It) 

Digitized by 



For 1852. 

SS, The Camden Miscellany, Volume the Second, containing : — 1. Account of 
the Expenses of John of Brabant, and Henry and Thomas of Lancaster, 1292-3. 
2. Household Account of the Princess Elizabeth, 1551-2. d. The 'Request and 
Suite of a True-hearted Englishman, written by William Cholmeley, 1553. 4. Dis- 
covery of the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell in March, 1627-8. 5. Trelawny 
Papers ; and 6. Autobiography of William Taswell, D.D. 

hs. Letters and Papers of the Vemey Family down to the end of the year 1 639. 
Printed from the original MSS. in the possession of Sir Harry Vemey, Bart- 
Edited by John Bruce, Esq. Treas. S.A. 

57. Regulae Inclusarum : The Ancren Riwle : A Treatise on the Rules and 
Duties of Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the 13th Century. Edited 
by the Rev. James Morton, B.D. Prebendary of Lincoln (^Nearly ready). 

For 1853. 

58. Letters of the Lady Brilliana Harley: 1625 — 1643. Edited by the Rev. 
T. T. Lewis, M.A. (Nearly ready,) 

Works in the Press, 

The Romance of Blonde of Oxford and Jehan of Dammartin. Edited by Thomas 

Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S A. 
The Household Roll of Richard Swinfield, Bishop of Hereford, 18 Edw. L Edited 

by the Rev. John Webb, M.A., F.S.A. 
The DomlBsday of St. Paul's; a Description of the Manors belonging to the Church 

of St. Paul's in London in the year 1222. Edited by the Ven. William Hale, 

M.A., Archdeacon of London. 
The Camden Miscellany, Vol. III. 

The following works have recently been added to the List of Suggested Publica- 
tions : — 

I. The Poor Man's Mirror, A Wickliffite Tract written by Bishop Peoock. To be edited from a 
MS. in Archbishop Tenison's Library by the Rev. Philip Hale Hale. B. A. 

II. Privy Purse Expenses of King William the Third. To be edited by J. Y. Akerman, E«q. 
Sec. S.A. 

III. An historical Narrative of the two Howses* of Parliament, and either of them, their Com- 
mittees and Agents^ violent Proceedings against Sir Roger Twysden : their imprisoning his person, 
sequestrating his estate, cutting down his Woods or Tymber, to his almost undoing, and forcing him 
in the end to a composition for his own. From the original in the possession of the Rev. Lambert 
B. Larking. 

IV. The Ancient Divisions, Measurements, Customs, &o. of Wales. Written in 1637 by Rob#rt 
Lloyd of the Pixe Office, at the request of Owen Wynne. To be edited by Georob Hillier, Esq. 

V. Extent of the Estates of the Hospitalers in England. Taken under the direction of Prior 
Philip de Thame, a.d. 1338;' from the original -in the Public Library at Malta. To be edited by the 
Rev. Lambert B. Larking, M.A. 

VI. Narrative of the Services of M. Dumont Bostaquet in Ireland. To be edited by the Rev. 
James Henthorn Todd, D.D. 

TTie subscription of One Pound is due in advance on the 1st of May in every 
year. No Books are delivered until the Subscription for the Year has been 

25, Parliament Street, Westminster', W. J. Thoms, Secretary. 

May 14, 1853. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



■ A 




>W r8^»*^^ 

DEC 1 tm 

1^^0 271971 


£a^QUi 0fcU30/^i^py.6 8 

/\UG 7 m^ 4 U 

HB.QJB. JUL 29 76 



LD 2l-100in'7/39 (4U2k) 


Digitized by 


UNiVERsmr OF California library 


Digitized by